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  1. QUESTION

     

     

    1. What types of problems warrant the referral of a correctional client to a psychologist/psychiatrist or mental health unit? What are some signs that should alert correctional workers to the possibility that an offender may be suicidal?

      Distinguish among the risk principle, the needs principle, and the responsivity principle. How is each important to correctional treatment efforts?

      3.What is meant by “anticriminal modeling?” In what ways do case managers or counselors sometimes inadvertently demonstrate criminal modeling?

 

Subject Law and governance Pages 4 Style APA

Answer

Question #2

Risk, need, and responsivity principles are influential models widely used in the correction of offenders. The models have been contextualized within personality, cognitive, and social learning theory of criminal behavior (Van Voorhis, Braswell & Lester, 2009). For practical application of the principles in the criminal correctional process, it is essential to understand the main concepts in every approach and importance to the correctional treatment efforts.

Risk Principle

Risk principle operates on the basis that an offender is likely to commit another crime in the future. However, it does not determine the nature and type of crime that the offender might commit. The principle categorizes offenders into low and high-risk offenders. A low-risk offender has low profanity of reoffending due to low-risk factors (Van Voorhis, Braswell & Lester, 2009). On the other hand, a high-risk offender has a high probability of reoffending due to demonstration of high-risk factors. The level of service the offender’s risk of committing a crime again is based on certain factors such as age, criminal history, and substance abuse, among others (Viglione, 2019). The principle is essential to offenders’ correction since it calls for administration and delivery for intense supervision to high-risk offenders. It helps predict criminal behavior and ensure treatment services that match the risk factors demonstrated by an offender. It provides helpful information needed for the treatment of the offender.

Needs Principle

According to the needs principle, the focus for correction of offenders should be on criminogenic needs. The needs are dynamic risk factors linked to criminal behaviors. Offenders have various needs, but not all the needs are linked to criminal behavior. The criminal needs are categorized under the main predictors of criminal behavior known as the central eight risk factors. They include antisocial personality, social support for crime, poor performance at school or work, pro-criminal attitudes, substance abuse, impulsive behavior, and lack of empathy (Van Voorhis, Braswell & Lester, 2009). The principle requires the assessment of criminogenic needs to determine the best treatment approach for offenders. Needs assessment is important in offender correction since it helps in predicating offenders at risk of recidivism. Nonetheless, it helps in identifying offenders with low and high need factors to determine effective correctional mechanisms for every category (Viglione, 2019). The concept of need principle helps criminal justice department to determine the offenders that can be safely released into the society pending trial. The principle accurately determines if the offender will appear if released and the likelihood of the offender committing another crime. Nonetheless, it helps the sentencing judge to decide if the offender should be incarcerated or released under strict supervision.

Responsivity Principle

Responsivity principle increases the offenders’ ability to learn from interventions provided by rehabilitation activities through motivation and cognitive behavioral treatment. The principle is categorized into two, general and specific responsivity. General responsivity involves influencing behavior by using cognitive social learning methods (Van Voorhis, Braswell & Lester, 2009). The method is effective in all types of offenders. Specific responsivity changes behavior of offenders by considering personality, motivation, and biosocial features of the offender. The principle improves the offenders’ behavior and problem solving skills through cognitive social learning therapy (Viglione, 2019). Nonetheless, it is essential in enhancing self-control and anger management among offenders. Besides, the principle makes offenders to develop empathy through role-playing and develop high level of moral reasoning.

References

Van Voorhis, P. E., Braswell, M. E., & Lester, D. E. (2009). Correctional counseling and rehabilitation. Anderson Publishing Co.

Viglione, J. (2019). The risk-need-responsivity model: How probation officers implement the principles of effective intervention. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 46(5), 655-

 

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