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Advanced Pharmacology



Administration of ophthalmological medications requires some explanation.
1. What are the important points that you would review with a patient when teaching how to instill ophthalmic drops and when teaching how to instill ointment?
2. What are the differences you would need to consider if the patient was a child or if the patient is a geriatric patient?

Search the literature to see whether you are able to locate any guidelines to support this teaching



Subject Nursing Pages 2 Style APA


Some of the crucial points I would review with a patient when teaching to instill ophthalmic drops includes:
-The requirement to wash hands prior as well as following the use of drops
– Remind them to shake the bottle properly
– Instilling in the lower conjunctival fornix as well as ideally keeping the eye closed for approximately 2 minutes following application (Ford and Roach, 2014).
-Gently pressing the tear duct for approximately a minute and using absorbent tissue to remove excess solution.
Teaching how to instill ointment
– Remind about the requirement to wash hands prior as well as after applying ointment to avert cross infections.
– Probably recommend the use of non- sterile gloves to ensure maximum safety against cross infections
– When prescription is for the eye itself, instill a ribbon of the treatment into the lower fornix and them the patient closing the eye.
– The ointment may no quickly melt or spread over patient’s eye, causing some blurred vision.
– Wipe the excess ointment form the eyelids and always clean the eyelids prior next application.
Some of the differences considered if a patient is a child or geriatric:
– the points are quite similar, but there is need for another person to assist them through, for instance, holding the child and babies or toddlers can be wrapped using a blanket. The individual offering assistance need to pull down the kid’s eyelid and release it following application to allow her or him to blink (Workman and Lacharity, 2015).
– In addition, the individual offering assistance ought to clean excess application using clean wipes.
-In sum, assistance is needed when children and geriatric patients are involved and sometimes this will involve gently rubbing their eyelids to ensure the drops bathe the eye.


Ford, S and Roach, S. (2014). Roach’s introductory clinical pharmacology. USA: Lippincott.
Workman, L and Lacharity, L. (2015). Understanding Pharmacology. USA: Elsevier.

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