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  1. American foreign policy


    Go to one of these sites and pick two documents relating to American foreign policy that interest you. Then write a four to five page paper in which you first explain which documents you picked and why. What is the significance of the documents you selected for the history or conduct of American Foreign Policy? What type of document are you analyzing, e.g., a constitution, a declaration, a speech, a political pamphlet, an important law, a peace treaty, a secret protocol, a caricature etc.? What does each one of your two documents say? What are its main points or message? Who is the author of the document? What issue does the document address? What is the historical and political context in which the document was written? What were its political effects? What impact did the document have on the subsequent history of the United States? To answer these questions, you probably will need to do some additional research on the web and/or in the library.    


Subject Law and governance Pages 6 Style APA


Ghent and Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty

This paper discusses two Treaties; the Ghent treaty and the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty, which were vital documents in strengthening America’s foreign policy and trade.

The Treaty of Ghent

The Treaty of Ghent was a political truce signed by Great Britain and American leaders in Ghent, Belgium, on December 24, 1814, which ended the War of 1812. The treaty terms outlined that all conquered territory be returned, and commissions were organized in settling the American and Canada boundary. America pronounced war against Britain on June 1812 in response to three matters: the British economic barricade of France, the impressment of several impartial American seamen into the British Royal Navy against their resolve, and the British support antagonistic Indian tribes alongside the Great Lakes frontier. Since Britain was fighting France, Britain never wanted Americans to trade with them or assist them (Carroll, 2004). therefore, Britain ratified laws hindering American-French trade, and thus Americans perceived this as essentially unlawful.

 Likewise, since Britain needed sailors to battle the French, it started an impressment policy against the American traders and sailors. Impressment is fundamentally kidnaping men and compelling them into military service. Several Americans were likewise worried over the British financing of the Native American assaults. The War of 1812 was battled mainly at sea, alongside the Canadian-American border, and in the southern America Gulf Coast. The most remarkable moment of the war happened when British troops raided Washington and torched the White House. Likewise, the British bombarded the Baltimore coast provoking Francis Scot to compose American’s national anthem.

The Ghent treaty has had an impact on the subsequent history of American. The treaty is crucial to the Columbia River Basin since it led to the Astoria restoration to America irrespective of the British claims that the North West Company bought the post in 1813. Hence, it was British and not exposed to the treaty terms. Americans claimed that the acquisition mainly had been imposed. Likewise, the treaty re-instituted the border between the two nations at the 49th parallel. But the treaty never settled the issue of the Northwest sovereignty. As a cost for peace, the British maintained noteworthy American concessions such as forming an Indian barrier state in the Old Northwest, surrendering Minnesota and northern Maine territory, the Great Lakes American demilitarization, and termination of American fishing rights in Canadian waters.

The 1812 War made America a stronger country because Americans became more unified and patriotic. This treaty is celebrated yearly by Americans, and a Peace Arch monument was built Sam Hill in Washington, separating American from Canada. Also, this treaty is inseparably adjoined with another treaty called the Jay Treaty. Britain and American negotiated the Jay Treaty to prevent tensions with native persons whose lands were intersected by the boundary line created between Canada and America. Article III of the Jay Treaty provided native persons the right to access America (Cullinane, 2021) liberally. The rights and gains initially outlined in Article III of the Jay Treaty continue to be identified as in effect by the State Department. They are presently codified as Section 289 of the immigration and nationality law. To this day, the Jay Treaty continues to confer upon American Indians conceived in Canada the right to liberally pass the border and stay in America for any reason, virtually unchecked by the migration and nationality law. Several persons accessing America as American-Indians born in Canada currently to do at the Peace Arch border crossing.


Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty

In November 1903, after Panama declared independence, America and Panama ratified the Hay-Bunau-Varilla treaty. Article II indicated that the Canal Zone was given in perpetuity to America. In exchange, Panama got $10 million and a $250,000 annuity starting nine years later. The Americans constructed the Panama Canal to reduce the time, distance, and expenses it took for ships to carry cargo between the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans. Before the canal’s construction, ships moved around the whole South American continent. The American state secretary, John Hay, and Panama’s representative Bunau-Varilla negotiated the treaty. Before the 1898 Spanish-American War, Theodore Roosevelt got interested in constructing a canal between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. after American won the war and conquered Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines, Roosevelt got interested in the canal. Roosevelt wanted a briefer route for naval ships wanting to pass between the two oceans. When negotiations with Colombia failed, it integrated Panama, made American finance, and planned a naval blockade in Panama’s revolt. The newly-independent Panama in 1903 sold the canal rights to America for ten million dollars (Sanjur, 2019). the Americans had a vibrant presence in the Panama Canal region until 1999 when all American military bases were shut.

The canal is still utilized for military water vessel transportation. Also, the Panama Canal fostered global relations between America and the whole world. Likewise, by Americans controlling the canal, America guaranteed that transit rates would stay low. A self-governing Panama or private canal operator would have levied profit-maximizing tolls and captured most of that surplus of itself. Under public ownership, low levies guaranteed that most of the surplus flow to American manufacturers and clients. This treaty impacted America’s subsequent history because America and Panama have ratified a bilateral investment pact and a trade promotion pact. The trade agreement removes tariffs and other hindrances to American exports, fosters economic development, determines high standards for investment treatment, and gives a structure for solving trade disputes and expanding trade between the two nations (Powaski, 2017). Panama in 2016 launched the Panama Canal expansion, which has given massive benefits to Panama and several American East Coast ports. America is the one which user of the canal with sixty-eight percent of the transits channeled to or from American ports. Panama’s locality and function in worldwide trade make it crucial to America’s success and national security.

Panama’s central location alongside primary and locality and sea transit pathways makes it a vital partner in banning unlawful drugs channeled to America. Whereas Panama’s economic development rate is amongst the highest in the hemisphere, the country confronts the problems of making this development more inclusive. Likewise, it confronts added pressure for more financial transparency as it imposes anti-money laundering laws. Intensifying pressure from drug smuggling and planned criminal actions comprising immigrant smugglers adds to the security challenges that impede Panamanian security, democratic institutions, and economic development. America’s help to Panama intends to guarantee Panama stays a safe, prosperous, and democratic nation that continues working with America as its primary partner in the region. America and Panama collaborate to foster mutual interests in enhancing citizen safety and reinforcing the rule of law. Likewise, the two nations collaborate in several means such as battling unlawful drug trafficking and other criminal actions and also fostering economic, democratic, and social growth via American and global agencies. 

In conclusion, this paper has effectively demonstrated how the two treaties effectively laid a foundation for America, reinforcing its ties with Britain and Panama, respectively, for bilateral and economic development.


Carroll, F. M. (2004). The search for the Canadian-American boundary along the Michigan frontier, 1819-1827: the boundary commissions under articles six and seven of Ghent’s treaty. The Michigan Historical Review, 77-104.

Cullinane, M. P. (2021). 100 Years of Peace among English‐Speaking People: Anglo‐American Cultural Diplomacy, 1909–1921. Peace & Change46(1), 5-34.

Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty. https://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/pan001.asp

Powaski, R. E. (2017). Theodore Roosevelt, the Panama Lobby, and Senator John Tyler Morgan: The Battle for an Isthmian Canal, 1901–1904. In American Presidential Statecraft (pp. 11-66). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

Sanjur, A. G. (2019). The Panama Canal Expansion: Adaptation of Contracts. Arbitration Law Review11(1), 2.

Treaty of Ghent; 1814. https://avalon.law.yale.edu/19th_century/ghent.asp






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