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    An Introduction Development Economics


    Paper Details

    Hi, it is an assignment with three question. the number of words could be less than 1100. I prefer less, because it is an in class assignment I need copy(hand written) it in class in one hour


Subject Economics Pages 7 Style APA


Assignment 3

Question 1

Burkina-Faso will be used in answering this question.

  1. The two measures of inequality that will be used is the access to education and income levels. It is worth to note that income levels and education are some of the fundamentals of economic development and human development thereof. In the year 2016, only 38.6% Of Burkina-Faso’s overall population had access to decent and quality education. This means that over 60% of the country’s population had no access to quality basic education. This is unlike Chad and Guinea Bissau which had 419% and 40.3% respectively. It is worth to note that countries have their Gross Domestic Product ranging within the same bracket of between $ 455 and $ 650. Other than education, the level of income in Madagascar shows that the country has inequality. According to the United Nations Department in charge of human development (UNDP) report in the year 2016, only 24.2% of the country’s population had regular and decent income. Chad and Guinea Bissau on the other hand had 30.1% and 32.5%. These figures shows that level of education and income distribution is still very low in Burkina-Faso as compared to other African countries whose GDP per-capita is the same as that of this country.


  1. Evolution of Inequality In Burkina-Faso between 1990 and 1995

The Economy of Burkina-Faso is said to be having a greater growth potential as compared to other Sub-Saharan African countries. This is majorly due to the large Marco-economy that the county has. However, with neglect of some methodology required in economic planning and policy making in order to ensure equality in resources distribution, the level of poverty increased between the year 1993 and 1995. This majorly because of the fact that only less than 20% of the country’s population had enough access to the necessary resources required for human development. With increase in poverty, the gap of income also increased by 35% between 1994 and 1995. It is worth to point out that in the year 1990, the income gap was less than 20% while the level of access to income was about 45%.


Question 2

  1. Measurement of Poverty Levels in Pakistan

In this case the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) will be used in measuring the poverty level in Pakistan. According to Jwa (2017), multidimensional poverty Index is a tool that overlaps to the three main dimensions suffered by the households. These dimensions include; education, health and living standards. The above elements are some of the most important indicators the rate of poverty in a household.  This tool uses deprivation score which has three main dimensions namely multidimensional poverty and severe poverty. According to this tool a deprivation score of between 20% and 33% falls within the category of multidimensional a score of 33% is said to be multidimensional poverty , while a score which is greater than 50% is said to be severe or extreme poverty.

 According to the survey that was done in the year 2012/2013 (the latest data available to the general public), In Pakistan, 45.6 % of the total population (82,612 thousand people) are multidimensional poor. While an additional 14.9 percent live near multidimensional poverty (27,062 thousand people). The average deprivation for Pakistan is 52% indicating severe poverty. The MPI of this country or the adjusted by the intensity of the deprivations, is 0.237. Bangladesh and India have MPIs of 0.188 and 0.282 respectively. It means that Pakistan is better than Bangladesh while India’s level of poverty is lower.


  1. Evolution of Poverty in Pakistan Since 2000

Pakistan is one of the countries in the world that has had a huge margin in poverty growth as shown in the diagram below:


Figure 1.

Source : World Bank

The economy of Pakistan has been facing various shocks since 2000 to peace instability that the country has been facing. Between 2000 and 2003, the Poverty rate in Pakistan moved from 23.9% to 37.5%. This was attributed majorly to the economic shocks that the county faced in a space of three years. Although the middle-class has grown in Pakistan to 35 million, nearly one-quarter of the population is classified poor as of October 2006. According to the survey carried in 2008, 17.2% of the total population lived below the poverty line, which is the lowest figure in the history of Pakistan since 2000.  The number shot again to 29.5% in 1995, with majority being the rural dwellers. The Recent data for the survey done in the year 2015/2016 revealed that the poverty rate for Pakistan stands at 37.9%. Poverty in this country is attributed to corruption, lack of political goodwill, peace instability among others.

Question 3

Assessing of Iran’s Development

Crude Birth Rate

This is the number of live birth that takes place amongst 1000 people. An Increase in crude birth rate in an indication of an improvement of the living standards hence an increase in human development (Jwa,2017 )In Pakistan, however, the rate has been reducing, indication low economic and human development as shown in figure 2 below.







Figure 2.The Crude Birth Rate in Iran up to 2010

Source: World Bank

Fertility Rate

 This is the frequency at which pregnancies are experienced among 1000 people. Its decrease or increase may not show an improvement in development. Since this variable has dropped in it can be said that the country has taken some strides in economic development.









Figure 3.The Fertility Rate in Iran Up To 2010

Source: World Bank

Figure 4.The Population Growth Rate in Iran

 Source: World Bank

 The Death Rate in Iran

Source: World Bank

The death rate decrease and the population increase in Iran can be attributed to improvement in the health standards, which is an indication of economic development.  It is therefore possible to say that the country’s economy has developed since 1980





Human Development Report Retrieved from;


Human Development Reports retrieve from;


Jwa, S. (2017). A General Theory of Economic Development: Towards a Capitalist Manifesto. Cheltenham, Gloucestershire: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Poverty and Equity Statistics retrieved from;


World Development Indicators retrieved from;




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