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Subject Nursing Pages 12 Style APA



The purpose and intention of this assignment is to analyse data sources about health information systems and technology issues. The analysis will be presented in a tabular form with key guiding issues to identified in the data sources provided.

Globally health information technology interventions are gaining prominence with implementation forming a critical item. This is because for the technologies to be transformative implementation must be done correctly otherwise the investment will be lost and thus inefficient use of resources. Implementation involves financial, organizational and human investments thus must ensure value for money and safety of the stakeholders who are mostly patients (Cresswell et al., 2013; Cresswell & Sheikh, 2014; Huckvale et al., 2010). In addition, current outlook on current networked readiness for growth and jobs shows promising results. The different sectors are ready for growth and creation of jobs but this must be utilized for realization of their potential. In this fast-moving internet world decision makers and investors are adopting business and financial strategies that will enable them move fast. In this developments ICT equipment providers and users are undergoing and embracing massive changes. These changes are important because they affect the development of the countries where their manufacture is done. In addition due to fast information flow growth of telephony, social networks are redefining business models which affects the entire functions of the society such as education health, security and privacy (Black et al., 2011; Cresswell, Bates & Sheikh, 2013).

A key realization about ICT is that it has a higher benefit-to-cost ratio in all productive sectors. It also provides new ways of value creation in which there are better and efficient organization of financial, human and natural resources. These benefits are possible in the health sector as their ae in manufacturing and service sectors. Among the innovations are Ehealth which has promoted quality and safety of health care. The success of this mode was due to presence and development of the digital literacy levels. According to research every sector has to exploit the potential presented by the expanding digital literacy and solutions to improve quality (Cresswell, Bates & Sheikh, 2013). In the health sector adoption of digital solutions will enhance quality and safety of health care when their implementation is done correctly.


Although technology adoption in the health sectors is seen in a positive light there are risks that must be guarded. These include over-reliance on clinical decision for e-prescribing or overestimating its functionality which will result to reduction in the performance of the practitioner. In addition, great care should be taken when interpreting results because most of the results are context based research and the results may not apply generally. Analysis of the data should be rigorous, multidisciplinary and of independent evaluation to enable meaning to be embedded in it (Huckvale et al., 2010).

In care delivery improvement, a number of innovations are combined to provide the required results. If the innovations are adapted and tailored to community needs true transformation will be realized in the care delivery. However, the success is dependent on the speed and fitness of the innovations to the health care objectives goals and institutional needs. In addition, understanding that solutions to our heath care are not similar and static but dissimilar and dynamic due to the complexity of the environment in which every health care technology, relationship and experiments exist. According to the sources provided the purpose of adopting the technologies is not to replace the existing procedures but compliment them and improve efficiency (Black et al., 2011; Cresswell, Bates & Sheikh, 2013; Cresswell & Sheikh, 2013; Car et al., 2008; Cresswell et al., 2013; Cresswell & Sheikh, 2014)



This table present individual analysis of each source using the parameters identified. Among the parameters identified as critical in implementation of a health information systems are governance, IT, Learning, benefits and/or limitation to patients and patient care. As main ideas in the different sources will be analysed key implementation challenges and learning in the health system and other interlinked sectors will be addressed. The tabular results are organized in the way the sources were provided.


Main ideas presented

Key implementation challenges and learnings

IT Governance learnings

Benefits or limitations to patients and patient care

Other learnings

Source 1

Key considerations for successful implementation of health Information system

Clarifying the problem and the technology is designed to help tackle

Build consensus

Consider available options

Choose systems that meet clinical needs

Appropriate planning

Invest in infrastructure

Train staff

Undertake continuous evaluation of the programs

Maintain the system

Stay on course

Management of the different stakeholders

Proper data storage

Cost benefit analysis

Proper handling of patients

Integration of patient data for easy diagnosis


Project implementation requires consensus and involvement of all stakeholders

Proper evaluation needs to be done to assess the impact of the technology to patients and care providers

Source 3

Future is now

Healthcare needs change

Health care technologies

Patients as partners

Patients as experts

Citizens as change agents

Attitude transformation

Holistic care

Culture change

Professional hierarchies breaks

Remote location care

Personalising medicine

Hospitals as systems of care

Technological advancement and testing

Doctor patient relationship

Patient own disease management remotely

Consultants ability to communicate with each other


Development and strengthening of relatioships

Inclusive disease management

Source 4

Better measurements for the full potential of health information technologies

Promote new sources of growth and job creation

Efficiency gains and cost reduction

Improved healthcare delivery

Reduced medical errors and improved patient safety

Improved management of chronic diseases

Establishment of an international measurement framework

Establishment of internationally agreed definitions of ICTs

Development of a model survey

Linking indicators to user needs

Flexibility and adaptability

Minimized burden

Provider-centric electronic record systems

Patient-centric electronic record systems

Health information exchanges


Promote diversity in technology implementation

Assessment of gains and cost in the short and long run to see the viability of the project

Analysis of error reduction due to technology adoption and improvement in care provider efficiency

Impact of the better management health information systems on the welfare and morale of the end users i.e the care providers

Care providers growth as they use the new technologies

Minimization of error incidences

Uniform measures of patient information thus easy comparisons

Cost reduction due to use of telehealth

Loss of personal touch

Introduction of technologies creates job and promotes individual and organization growth

Before implementation of any project it is important to assess efficiency gains

The users of the technology form a key implementation concerns and must be integrated in the implementation process to achieve success


Source 5

Review of effectiveness and consequences of various ehealth technologies on quality and safety of health care

Substandard quality of research

Lack of best guidelines in effective development and deployment of the strategies

Lack of risk and cost effectiveness assessment

Data storage, management and retrieval system

·         Electronic health records

·         Picture archiving and communication system

Supporting clinical decisions

·         Computerised provider (or physician) order entry challenges

·         E-prescribing challenges

·         Computerised decision support system implementation challenges


Storing, managing and transmission of data

Clinical decision support

Facilitating care from a distance


Improvements in patients outcomes

Increased accessibility, legibility, manipulation, transportation, sharing and preservation of electronic data

Improved organizational efficiency

Threat to patient safety, unsecured networks resulting to illegitimate access and increased time needed to document and retrieve patient data

Less impersonal


Source 6

Diabetes test app

Patient data management

Doctor linkage and information gathering

Training patient on individual data collection

People resistant to change

Integration of health care providers

Collection of real time data

Payment for the technology and healthcare practitioners

Source 8

Organizational issues in the implementation and adoption of health information technology innovations

Human factors and/or ergonomics

Organizational/occupational/social psychology

Management of the organizational changes

Information systems

Diffusion of information

Normalization of the processes

Sense making

Social shaping of technology

Socio-technical changes

Technology acceptance

Technology fit

How to integrate interaction between the different stakeholders to avoid conflict

Technology evaluation to minimise risk and unintended costs

Proper alignment of technology with the organization vision

Psychological management and organization of the care providers

Process of technology adoption and diffusion

The social impacts of a technology in every sector are evident





In every sector, the amount of data available for analysis is huge. Some of this data is available in the internet while other is not. Health care data is one category of data that is not available in the internet. This presents problems in analysis as one cannot be able to analyse data on key specific issues such as number of hospitals without medicines in the developing world, number of births or child deaths, needs of the elderly and needs of the mentally challenged individuals. Thus, innovative ways to collect the data require adoption of digital means that can integrate them in a cloud storage mechanism making analysis easier and usable to introduce intervention. The health information technology interventions in the global arena are gaining prominence. However different researcher state that implementation is a critical component to ensure success of the new technologies. This ensures that the technologies are transformative are implemented. Importantly implementation must be done in the right manner to avoid inefficient use of resources resulting into lost investment. The complexity of implementation shows the care with which any investment must be handled with. Implementation of projects involves financial, organizational and human investments thus must ensure value for money and safety of the stakeholders. In this case the key beneficiaries are the patients with the care givers

Benefits of adopting ICT in management of the health care has a higher benefit-to-cost ratio. It has been hailed to provide new ways of value creation in which there are better and efficient organization of financial, human and natural resources. Among the innovations that are being adopted include e-health which has promoted quality and safety of health care. The interaction between e-health and the other health programmes such as child nutrition continue to show the interoperability of the technologies. The success of this model was due to presence and development of the digital literacy levels among the care providers and the common population. In the health sector adoption of digital solutions will enhance quality and safety of health care when their implementation is done correctly. Adoption of use of ICT in health enables a number of benefits. These benefits range from reduction in medical errors, improvement in clinical care due to adherence to evidence-based guidelines. ICT adoption also prevent inefficiencies arising from job duplication. ICT technologies enable better coordination of chronic disease care with an improvement in its management.

Another important realization is that patient involvement in monitoring their health and care management is central to ensuring success of the implementation process. Although there is much work to do in information gathering in order to help in designing and developing tools that will improve the quality of existing measures and linkages between sectors and in policy. As adoption is being considered the degree of penetration also need to be assessed. This will result in barrier and incentive understanding in ICT use. Among them are the economic impacts expected and the social benefits resulting from integration of the patient’s data collection.

In the overall analysis, holistic outlook of the care provision to the patients should be the driving force. Changes as we move into the future are inevitable and both the care providers and patients must be ready to change, change for the better. In changing for the better attitudes must be transformed to a mindset set to improving health sometimes in a non-structured way. Making sense out of the innovation is also an important ingredient to acceptability of the technology. Despite the presence of distractions the implementers of the innovation must stay on course performing continuous evaluations in order to maintain the process and make adjustment where possible as early as enough.



From the analysis above and discussion foregoing the following recommendations for further research are proposed

  1. Integrate data collection for relationships in the house to allow for correlation analysis
  2. Link data from different care providers
  3. Use information from more than one care providers to diagnose
  4. Allow for patient input in how they would like to manage themselves


Source 7

The surprising seeds of big data revolution management

Lack of data in the internet on health specific issues such as number of hospitals without drugs, number of children born, number of children deaths, needs of the elderly, needs of the mentally challenged

Household level data collection is tedious

Data entry challenges due to quality issues and complexity of data entered to data entry clerks

Long time entry of data collected on paper forms

Inneficient dissemination of new technologies


Black, A. D., Car, J., Pagliari, C., Anandan, C., Cresswell, K., Bokun, T., … & Sheikh, A. (2011).            The impact of eHealth on the quality and safety of health care: a systematic overview. PLoS    medicine8(1), e1000387.

Cresswell, K. M., Bates, D. W., & Sheikh, A. (2013). Ten key considerations for the successful    implementation and adoption of large-scale health information technology. Journal of the   American Medical Informatics Association20(e1), e9-e13.

Cresswell, K., & Sheikh, A. (2013). Organizational issues in the implementation and adoption of health information technology innovations: an interpretative review. International journal        of medical informatics82(5), e73-e86.

Car, J., Black, A., Anandan, C., Cresswell, K., Pagliari, C., McKinstry, B., … & Sheikh, A. (2008).          The impact of eHealth on the quality and safety of healthcare. A Systemic Overview &             Synthesis of the Literature Report for the NHS Connecting for Health Evaluation          Programme.

Cresswell, K., Coleman, J., Slee, A., Williams, R., & Sheikh, A. (2013). Investigating and learning           lessons from early experiences of implementing ePrescribing systems into NHS hospitals: a questionnaire study. PLoS One8(1), e53369.

Cresswell, K. M., & Sheikh, A. (2014). Undertaking sociotechnical evaluations of health   information technologies. Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics21(2), 78-83.

Huckvale, C., Car, J., Akiyama, M., Jaafar, S., Khoja, T., Khalid, A. B., … & Majeed, A. (2010). Information technology for patient safety. Quality and Safety in Health Care19(Suppl 2),        i25-i33.



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