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    Discuss an activity that you participate in and some of the possible costs and benefits associated with the use of​ anticipation to respond more rapidly.

    APA Style


Subject Business Pages 2 Style APA


Anticipation Costs And Benefits Of Motor Behavior

                Anticipation is an important factor in motor behavior. Playing football is one of the activities which I take part in during my free time. To avoid losing in the game, I am expected to hit the ball at the right time. This means that anticipation is used when performing the activity of hitting the ball when playing. According to Wöllner and Cañal-Bruland (2010), it is important to keep reaction time to stimulus shorter to avoid missing the chance to hit the ball at the right time. The use of anticipation in performing this activity is associated with several costs and benefits. For instance, the subject is required to not only predict the actual time that the ball will reach its contact point to the limb, but also establish the actual time that he/she needs to hit it. This process is costly since it is associated with a high error potential. For instance, if the predictability movement time was decreased for the player, an error in establishing the right time to move the limb to hit the ball would be noted. Turner and Rindova (2018) explain, that this downside is noted since the motion times are defined by short durations and cannot be changed while responding to the stimuli evident during the movement of the ball and the limb.

                The major benefit noted with the use of predictability in the football activity is the reduction in the timing error. Apparently, with predictability, timing does not deteriorate with exceptionally fast and forceful movements initiated when playing football unlike in the case of the “commonsense” notion. Vicario Makris and Urgesi (2017) support this statement by reporting that no absolute error among movements in varied lengths of time when playing the game.




Turner, S. F., & Rindova, V. P. (2018). Watching the Clock: Action Timing, Patterning, and Routine Performance. Academy of Management Journal61(4), 1253–1280. 

Vicario, C., Makris, S., & Urgesi, C. (2017). Do experts see it in slow motion? Altered timing of action simulation uncovers domain-specific perceptual processing in expert athletes. Psychological Research81(6), 1201–1212. 

Wöllner, C., & Cañal-Bruland, R. (2010). Keeping an eye on the violinist: motor experts show superior timing consistency in a visual perception task. Psychological Research74(6), 579–585. 








Appendix A:

Communication Plan for an Inpatient Unit to Evaluate the Impact of Transformational Leadership Style Compared to Other Leader Styles such as Bureaucratic and Laissez-Faire Leadership in Nurse Engagement, Retention, and Team Member Satisfaction Over the Course of One Year

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