*NO RUNNING HEAD PLEASE*
Review this week’s media presentation on principles of antimicrobial therapy, as well as Chapter 8 of the Arcangelo and Peterson text.
Consider the categories of antimicrobial agents.
Think about differences between viral and bacterial infections.
Reflect on why proper identification of the infection is key to selecting the proper antimicrobial agent.
Write a 2- to 3- page paper that addresses the following:
Describe the categories of antimicrobial agents.
Describe differences between viral and bacterial infections.
Explain why proper identification of viral and bacterial infections is key to selecting the proper antimicrobial agent.
Drug therapy is habitually the backbone of treatment for chronic and acute diseases. In the development of a treatment which encompasses drug therapy, the prescribing care provider considers several issues in accomplishing the goal of effective, appropriate, and safe therapy, including product safeguard and drug safety. Antimicrobial agents are one of the injudiciously and widely used therapeutic drugs for treating acute and chronic diseases. They are agents which kill or stop the growth of microorganisms. Some of the principles of prescribing antimicrobial agents include understanding the difference between definitive and empiric therapy, obtaining the accurate diagnosis of the infection, and understanding the drugs characteristics.
Categories of Antimicrobial Agents
Antimicrobial agents are majorly categorized into biostatics and micro biocidal. Micro biocidal refers to those that stop or kill the micro-organisms while biostatics inhibit the growth of microbe (Pandey & Shrivastava, 2016). The two categories are further classified into penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, and fluoroquinolones. Penicillin is used to treat an array of bacterial infections. First, it aids in preventing bacterial endocarditis (infection of the heart) in patients with particular heart disorders who have surgery. Pinnicillins such as amoxicillin mainly works through stopping bacteria’s growth. Cephalosporin, on the other hand, works by inhibiting enzymes or disrupting cell synthesis in the cell wall. They are used to treat urinary tract infections, skin infections, and respiratory tract infections. Similarly, macrolide is a class of antibiotic which encompass erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin and, roxithromycin used to treat sexually transmitted, H. pylori, soft tissue, skin, and respiratory infections. Lastly, fluoroquinolones also play a critical role in treating urinary tract infections and include ciprofloxacin (Cipro) and ofloxacin (Floxin).
Differences between Viral and Bacterial Infections
Whereas viruses and bacteria can both lead to mild to chronic infections, they are distinct from each other. First, bacterial infections are caused by bacteria while viral infections are caused by virus (Bosch et al., 2013). Examples of viral infections include HIV/AIDS, chicken pox, bronchitis, flu, and common cold. On the other hand, examples of bacterial infections include urinary tract infections, ear infection, strep throat, and whooping cough. Clinicians treat bacterial infections with antibiotics which either stop their multiplication or kill them. Contrariwise, viral infection treatment involves stoppage of viral reproduction through the use of antiviral medicine.
Why proper identification of viral and bacterial infections is critical to selecting the proper antimicrobial agent
First, proper identification of bacterial and viral infections is key in the selection of proper antimicrobial agent to avoid or evade drug resistance of the micro-organisms which causes the infections (World Health Organization, 2017). This is because micro-organisms can occasionally develop resistance to antibiotics and therefore eliminating the harmful impact. Secondly, proper identification of viral and bacterial infections aids doctors make an effective decision in regards to the most suitable treatment method. It is important to note that determining the appropriate antimicrobial agent is generally braced by the knowledge of susceptibility of the organism to agent’s safety, organism identity, infection site, and certain agents. Therefore, proper identification would ensure the infection site and organism’s identity is well-established.
In conclusion, antimicrobial are principally employed in human and veterinary medicine to control, prevent, and treat bacterial, viral, and fungal diseases. The agents are categorized into biostatics and micro biocidal. Micro biocidal refers to those that stop or kill the micro-organisms while biostatics refers to those that inhibit the growth of microbe. The bacterial infections are caused by bacteria while viral infections are caused by virus and it is important for doctors to properly identify the bacterial and viral infection before selecting antimicrobial agent to avoid drug resistance and make effective decision in regards to the appropriate method of treatment.
Bosch, A. A., Biesbroek, G., Trzcinski, K., Sanders, E. A., & Bogaert, D. (2013). Viral and bacterial interactions in the upper respiratory tract. PLoS pathogens, 9(1), e1003057.
Pandey, A., & Shrivastava, N (2016). Research Article Effect of Metal Ions on Antibacterial Activity of Aloe Barbadensis Mill. & Coriandrum Sativum Against Various Pathogens.
World Health Organization. (2017). Critically important antimicrobials for human medicine: ranking of antimicrobial agents for risk management of antimicrobial resistance due to non-human use.