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  1.  Behavioral Biometrics    


    Behavioral biometrics are based upon a person’s actions or measurements of body movement. Respond to the following:

    Select from one of the following lower or newer behavioral metrics:
    Facial recognition
    Signature analysis
    Gait analysis
    Keystroke analysis
    Explain how your selected biometric works.
    What are the ways that it be used in criminal investigations?
    Explain the limitations of your selected biometric.



Subject Law and governance Pages 3 Style APA


Behavioral Biometrics


Behavioral biometrics is referred to the recording and measurement of behavioral patterns of people and their use to authenticate and verify a private computer-user, either retrospectively or in real time (Liang, Samtani, Guo, & Yu, 2020). The term differs with physical biometrics, which comprises of natural human characteristics including iris patterns or fingerprints. Rather than paying attention on the results of an activity, behavioral biometrics gives priorities on how an operator conducts a specified activity (Liang, Samtani, Guo, & Yu, 2020). Not whether the password and user-name are keyed in properly, for instance, but how an operator types them: Are they slowly or quickly typing? Are they transitioning between the boxes with the tab key or the mouse? This paper therefore explicates and expounds on how facial recognition works. Additionally, the paper highlights on the ways that facial recognition can be used in criminal investigations as well as its limitations.

How Facial Recognition Operates

 A facial recognition is a technological system in a position to identify and clarify a person from a video frame or digital image retrieved from a video source (Carter, 2018). Facial recognition works by taking pictures of an individual’s face from a distance or up close (Carter, 2018). The software then uses the image to clarify and identify the person or even store the photo for an imminent use. In comparison with other biometric technological systems like fingerprint or iris recognition, facial recognition is the most provocative since it does not need an interaction or communication with the person being identified (Carter, 2018).

Significance of Facial Recognition in Criminal Investigation

This type of biometric system can be used for many different reasons including investigation of criminal activities and reduction of false identification techniques and identity theft (Carter, 2018). In criminal investigation departments such as Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), facial recognition is used in identification of the faces of criminals associated with the act for evidence collection (Carter, 2018). Additionally, police departments use facial recognition in identification of individuals with previous criminal records as well as outstanding warrants.

Limitations of Facial Recognition

Despite being vital in clarification and identification of people, facial recognition also records various limitations. It is a powerful biometric system that can be used without people’s consent or knowledge (Carter, 2018). This makes the biometric system to be under analysis from several critics who debate that facial recognition system violates the privacy of people. In an exposition, one of the critical analysis of the system originates from American Civil Liberties Union which focuses on the privacy of an individual (Rights, 2017). The union argues that the introduction of facial recognition systems is exclusively subject to mishandling since it can be used in a passive way that does not necessitate the participation, consent, or knowledge of the subject. Furthermore, the American Civil Liberties Union greatest issue with the system is based on the fact that individuals do not talk on the recording and surveillance of their expressions (Rights, 2017). Hence based on the fact that individuals would feel uncomfortable offering their fingerprints to various businesses and organizations, they similarly should feel uncomfortable with passively giving their facial identity.

In conclusion, this paper explicates and expounds on how facial recognition works. In brief explanation, it works by taking pictures of an individual’s face from a distance or up close. Additionally, the paper highlights on the ways that facial recognition can be used in criminal investigations as well as its limitations. Despite being important in identification and clarification of criminals during investigation, facial recognition also operates without the consent and knowledge of an individual hence violating privacy.


Carter, A. M. (2018). Facing Reality: The Benefits and Challenges of Facial Recognition for the NYPD. NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA MONTEREY United States.

Liang, Y., Samtani, S., Guo, B., & Yu, Z. (2020). Behavioral Biometrics for Continuous Authentication in the Internet of Things Era: An Artificial Intelligence Perspective. IEEE Internet of Things Journal.

Rights, L. G. B. T. (2017). American Civil Liberties Union. Phoenix, AZ. Retrieved from https://www.aclu.org/issues/lgbt-rights


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