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Biology 103 Nutrition    

Unit 6 Discussion Topic:

Discuss the functional role, intake recommendation, and sources of both the major and trace minerals.
Discuss the diseases associated with deficiencies or toxicities of the major minerals.




Subject Biology Pages 3 Style APA


Major and Trace Minerals

Human bodies require different minerals to remain healthy. These minerals must however remain in certain levels in the body since excess or lack of these minerals may hinder the normal functioning of the body. Some of the major nutrients include calcium, magnesium, chloride/sodium and potassium. The top trace minerals include chromium, zinc, iron and selenium. All these minerals function collectively to promoting the overall wellness of the body. As such, these major nutrients and trace minerals make the body to remain strong and physically fit (Mohammadifard et al., 2019). They also reduce stress levels and thus increased quality of life and individual’s performance. The table below indicates the type of mineral, functional role, the recommended intake and the possible sources of the mineral.


Functional Role


Recommended intake
RDA for adults)


Building of bones, muscle contractions, nerve impulses’ transmissions, blood clotting, enzymes and hormonal activation, sustainability of normal heart rates, balancing of electrolyte

Milk – 300 mg

Yoghurt – 300mg

Almonds – 100mg

Cooked turnip greens – 100mg

Sweet potato -50mg

1,000mg to 1,300 mg per day


Neuromuscular coordination, immunity support, heart beat regulation, metabolic functions necessary for exercises, synthesis of macronutrient and nerve impulses’ transmission (Mohammadifard et al., 2019)

Milk – 34mg

Spinach – 78mg

Brown rice – 86mg

Hazenuts – 45mg

Almonds – 77mg

Lima beans – 63mg

310 mg to 420mg


Blood pressure, provides digestive juices, nerve impulses’ transmission, regulation of blood volumes, muscle contractions and electrolyte balances

Milk – 107mg

Stalk celery -32mg

Salt – 2,300mg

Cured meats (one must read the labels)

Chloride – 2.3g per day

Sodium- 2,300 mg

(persons with high blood pressure maximum of 1,500 mg of sodium)


Acid-base balancing, heart’s electrical activity controls, Proteins and muscle building, utilization of carbohydrates and balancing of electrolyte

Banana – 422mg

Orange – 237 mg

Baked potato with skins – 926mg

Sunflower seeds – 241mg

Spinach – 420mg



Prevention of anemia or hemoglobin synthesis, cardiovascular performances, cellular functionality, metabolism, transmission of oxygen from lungs to body muscles and tissues

Meat, poultry and sea-foods are heme sources while fortified foods and plants are non-heme sources.

Oyster -8mg

Beef- 1.6mg

Lentils – 8mg

White beans -8mg

Spinach – 3mg

8mg to 18mg


Metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates and fats
cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis
glucose metabolism and action of insulin

Broccoli -11mcg (1/2 cup)

Ham -10.4mcg

Grape juice – 7.5mcg

English muffin -3.6mcg

20mcg to 35mcg


Antioxidant enzymes production to improve recovery and prevention of cell damaging, metabolism of thyroid hormone (Kieliszek, 2019)

Chicken -25mcg

Sunflower seed kernel -18.6mcg

Tuna -92mcg

Brazil nuts 543mcg



Cell division,
Breakdown of carbohydrates,
Cell growth,
Healing of wounds and
Support of immune system

Cooked oysters -27-50mg

Pork – 1.9 to 3.5mg

Cashews – 1.6mg

Baked beans – 0.9 to 2.9mg

8mg to 11mg


            Various diseases are associated with toxicities or lack of these major minerals. Some of these diseases include rickets, scurvy or the disease of the pirates, anemia or lack of sufficient blood cells in the body (Mohammadifard et al., 2019). Lack of sodium causes goiter while excessive zinc causes gastrointestinal disorders. Apart from development of brittle bones, lack of calcium is also associated with excessive bleeding. Excess or lack of iron may lead to cardiovascular problems.













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