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 Biology 103 Nutrition    

Food Borne Illnesses Assignment

Some bacteria, protozoa, and viruses that cause foodborne illness are:

E.coli, Salmonella
Staphylococcus aureus
Clostridium botulinum
Clostridium perfringens
Hepatitis A.
Giardia (mainly water)
Research ALL of the foodborne illnesses listed above and report the following information for each.

Disease name and whether it is a bacteria, protozoa, or virus
Type of contamination (infection or intoxication)
Infectious pathway
Possible sources and foods affected
Incubation period
Current Statistics, how many affected, where, when etc. https://www.cdc.gov/foodborneburden/index.html




Subject Biology Pages 3 Style APA


Foodborne Illness

  1. coli, Salmonella– These are bacterial infections. They are mainly transmitted through consumption of contaminated water and foods including raw milk, uncooked foods and ground meat products. Main symptoms include stomach tenderness, pains and cramping; diarrhea, vomiting and nausea. Incubation period for E. Coli is 3-4 days, but may be shorter if there is severe or bloody diarrhea (Center for Disease Control, 2021). There is no treatment for E. Coli but only prevention of symptoms or complications. There are approximate 74,000 E. Coli infection cases in united states and about 2,100 hospitalization cases.

Norovirus – it is a virus-caused disease. It is transmitted through having direct contact with infected persons or eating contaminated foods such as salads and shellfish. Symptoms including diarrhea and vomiting. Norovirus illness has an incubation period of 12 to 48 hours. About 900 people in US die of Norovirus illness, especially the elderly persons from 65 years.

Staphylococcus aureus – It is a bacterial illness. The bacteria may cause diseases like toxic shock syndrome. It is transmitted when one touches infected body fluids and blood with an incubation period between 2 to 4 hours.  About 120,000 people are infected with the bacteria each year while casing close to 20,000 deaths each year.

Clostridium botulinum – It is a bacterial type of illness propagated through intoxication of body nerves. symptoms include blurred eye sight, trouble in speech, tiredness and weakness. It may cause difficulty in breathing and muscle paralysis or death (Center for Disease Control, 2021). Botulinum toxin is found in low-preserved foods such as mushrooms, smoked fish, spinach, green beans and meat products like sausages. The illness is rare with only about 150 cases in a year.

Campylobacter – it is caused by an infectious bacterium. It spreads through consumption of raw foods such as poultry, seafood, meat untreated water. It has an incubation period of 2 to 5 days but may start as early as a day and extend up to 10 days. Symptoms include fever, bloody diarrhea, vomiting and nausea. According to CDC, there about 1.5 million cases of Campylobacter illness every year.

Clostridium perfringens – Caused by a bacteria and spreads through infections. Transmission occurs through consumption of cooked foods that have been stored at ambient temperatures for many hours. Sources of foods include cooked vegetables, poultry, fish and meat. Symptoms include stomach cramps and diarrhea with incubation period lasting between 6 to 24 hours. It causes dehydration, which is remedied by drinking a lot of water. CDC reports about one million cases every year.

Giardia (mainly water) – It is a parasitic illness that spread through consumption of contaminated foods, water or touching contaminated surfaces. Symptoms include watery diarrhea, cramps, fatigue and greasy stools. There are about 100,000 cases every year in the United States. Severe cases are remedied with antibiotics.

Listeriosis –It is caused by bacteria. symptoms include stiff neck, headache, loss of balance and convulsions as well as changes in alertness, muscle aches and fever. Its incubation period is 7 to 14 days but can extend up to 90 days. Treatment involves taking of antibiotics. According to CDC, there are about 900 cases every year.


























Center for Disease Control, CDC. (2021). Estimates of foodborne illness in the United States https://www.cdc.gov/foodborneburden/index.html

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