You have been asked to explore the practical applications of biometrics in the public and private sector.
Describe how a high biometric is being used in the public and private sector today.
Describe how a low biometric is being used in the public and private sector today.
Support your work with properly cited research and examples of the selected biometrics applied in the public and private sector.
|Subject||Law and governance||Pages||7||Style||APA|
Practical Applications of Biometric in Private and Public Sector
For centuries, concerns have been raised over the issue of identification. Initially, authentication was simple because it was guided by what a user needed to have or something that one understands such as a Personal Identification Number (PIN) and necessary password given to a person to enable him or her access restricted or confidential information. Nonetheless, the rapid growth of technology across the world has prompted the emergence of biometrics. Reportedly, applying biometric systems in private and public sectors have ensured that people’s confidential rights are secured through accurately and timely identifying them without necessarily demand them to use a PIN or a password given to them. Therefore, this paper describes the practical applications of high biometric in private and public sectors. It also explains how low biometric is being used in private and public sectors today.
Applications of High Biometric in Public and Private Sector Today
High Biometric In Public Sector
In the public sector, high biometric is applied in border control systems to identify and trace travelers, thereby improving the security and safety of boarders. According to Galterio, Shavit, and Hayajneh (2018), many public sectors use biometric passports, particularly smart card technology to record personal information that can be retrieved easily through computer interface. Galterio, Shavit, and Hayajneh (2018) further indicated that Southeast Asia countries, particularly Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, and Thailand, use biometric technology to regulate border entry. Similarly, the US uses a chip that is incorporated in the passport and contains stored biometric information such as photographs and digitized signatures to verify various documents. Through the biometric identifier technique, the country adopts a digital photo and electronic fingerprints to electronically scan everyone who wants to apply for a visa.
Public sectors have practically applied biometrics for years, with fingerprinting being the most prevalent and famous technique to collect data across the globe. In particular, all the government contractors and employees who need security clearances are usually fingerprinted. Similarly, most countries fingerprint military recruits and carries out regular database checks to verify past affiliations, criminal records, as well as, appropriateness for employment. In these countries, persons involved in criminal investigations are frequently fingerprinted and their personal information keyed into an integrated criminal database for future references and retrieval. In their studies, Jain, Ross and Pankanti (2006) posited that the US Federal Bureau of Investigation uses the Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System, the biggest biometric database across the globe to eradicate criminal activities and arrest terrorists and criminal. Normally, the security and safety of the public and successful handling of criminal case depends on the ability to rapidly and accurately retrieve this kept biometric information. Intuitively, any fingerprint left behind at any crime scene can make it easy for the suspect to be identified and successfully prosecuted in the court.
High Biometric In Private Sector
In the private sector, practical applications of biometrics technology have grown unprecedentedly in a bid to safeguard personal property and financial activities and to make sure that workers maintain their integrity. For instance, authentication techniques, integrating biometrics are practically applied to regulate the access to almost everything including ATM machines, personal computers, office, and residential complexes among others. Most businesses in private sectors are using fingerprint biometrics as a critical element of their point of sale systems to ensure workers’ accountability, improved sales and decline in payroll fraud illegal transactions. Through the biometrics, these businesses have adopted employee time card clock-in technique to detect whether a particular worker has reported to work or not. In these organizations, employees are now identified by being demanded to physically present and scan their fingerprint to actually prove that they have attended the job.
Biometrics has been applied in private financial institutions to identify customers and grant them access to confidential information. For instance, most private financial institutions in Japan continue to use finger vein technology as a critical component of their multi-factor authentication strategy for ATM customers. Besides using a ban card or PIN, these institutions use biometrics in which the customers put their fingers on the console where an infrared light senses a distinct pattern of micro-veins below the surface of their fingers. The sensed patterns are later matched with a pre-registered profile to validate the identity of the customer.
Applications of Low Biometric in Public and private Sectors
Low Biometric In Public Sector
Public sectors regularly use biometric in drones to monitor any criminal activities across their boarders. In particular, Nieto, Johnston-Dodds and Simmons (2002) noted in their survey that in the next ten years, the US will have more than 30, 000 drones to help monitor its boarders. Findings of this survey further revealed that in the future, in these countries, the government in partnership with law enforcement agencies will use soft biometric recognition capable of recognizing and tracking individuals based on traits such as gender, height, skin color and age among others.
In public sectors, low biometric is used to expedite security clearance processes. According to a study by Mann and Smith (2017), the US Department of Defense regularly use biometrics technology to expedite their security clearance process, regulate the access to confidential devices, and carry out criminal and dissident record background checks in international national contractors who desire to conduct business within the US boarders. Biometric technology has also been applied by governments across the world to track terrorists and rebels and effectively identify persons when carrying out personnel recovery operations. Studies have also indicated that in the US, Maritime Interdiction together with anti-Piracy Operations frequently apply biometrics to effectively identify and record the persons encountered irrespective of identification document produced or alleged identity revealed.
Low Biometric In Private Sector
Low biometric technology is widely applied in private sports and recreational entertainment joints across the world. Essentially, private entertainment organizations such as Walt Disney Company Resort, as well as, SeaWorld Park and Entertainment have continued to practically apply biometrics to regulate the access of theme park, making sure that the initial buyer does not transfer similar pass to other uses without proper authorization. This according to Yıldırım and Varol (2014) ensures that every user buys their personal pass thereby increasing profit margin for the park and minimizing fraudulent pass use. Intuitively, sports venue management encompasses arena and stadium security with larger private businesses using biometrics technology in their entrance and ticketing processes. This according to Yıldırım and Varol (2014) not only assist these organizations to minimize fraudulent pass and ticket sales but also helps law enforcement agencies to identify and control possible challenges by identifying suspected and known terrorists and criminals.
In private sectors, low biometric has been played a critical role in mobile security. Security professionals in various private sectors across the world are growing fostering the use of human traits to allow people access their mobile devices. The reasoning is that mobile devices are susceptible to loss and theft and thus using biometrics to unlock such devices will minimize the possibilities of accessing information in such devices. Passwords and passcodes have been shown to be ineffective, partly because individuals are not creative in selecting secure patterns. On mobile devices, the issue has been to incorporate a high resolution camera and a powerful processor that can perform complex algorithms required for facial recognition while reducing power consumption. With the unprecedented growth in technology, the above challenges have been addressed. Presently, the Android and smartphones manufactured by Apple have facial recognition technology embedded on them. Similarly, the cameras of these phones can scan the face of the owner and compares it to the initially image that the owner created. The phone will only unlock when the two matches and locks when they do not.
Using biometric to ensure security, safety and business integrity has become prevalent across the world. People’s fingerprints and photographs have been used to authenticate their identities, safeguard their lives, and secure their properties for decades. For a fact, biometric identifiers have existed for years and continue to be regarded as the standard means of documenting and authenticating identities in both private and public sectors. Undoubtedly, biometrics technology has become a critical component of people’s lives; greeting their arrivals at seaports, airports, land boarders, residential and business complexes. As people continue to gain more understanding about this technological advancement and its use, it is prudent for them to appreciate the security that the technology offers in their lives.
Galterio, M. G., Shavit, S. A., & Hayajneh, T. (2018). A review of facial biometrics security for smart devices. Computers, 7(3), 37.
Jain, A. K., Ross, A., & Pankanti, S. (2006). Biometrics: a tool for information security. IEEE transactions on information forensics and security, 1(2), 125-143.
Mann, M., & Smith, M. (2017). Automated facial recognition technology: Recent developments and approaches to oversight. UNSWLJ, 40, 121.
Nieto, M., Johnston-Dodds, K., & Simmons, C. W. (2002). Public and private applications of video surveillance and biometric technologies (Vol. 2, No. 6). Sacramento, CA: California State Library, California Research Bureau.
Yıldırım, N., & Varol, A. (2014). Mobile biometric security systems for today and future. Proceding Book, 86.