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  1. Brofenbrenners bioecological theory    


    Discuss the Brofenbrenners bioecological theory


Subject Biology Pages 3 Style APA


Brofenbrenner’s Bioecological Theory

            High turnover rate in the retail industry is a major socioeconomic issue in the United States (Anderson, 2019). High employee turnover rate in the retail can be analyzed using the Brofenbrenner’s (1994) Bioecological Theory. Bidirectional influences between different persons can influence the observed high employee high turnover rate (Brofenbrenner, 1994). At the individual level, employees are blamed for not comprehending or taking an initiative to fully understand the nature of the job they would like to commit in. At the microsystem level, the managers are blamed for failing to train new employees in a proper and adequate manner to enable them understand the nature of the job as well as learn how to perform their roles (Kamarulzaman et al., 2015). There is evidence that new employees are at times not given detailed job specifications. At the mesosystem level, high turnover rate may be attributed to failure of the human resource department to carry-out their roles as expected including proper informing and orientation of new employees. As an employee comes to discover the nature of the job by self, they often lose interest in the job. They may end up leaving the job so as to do something better (Cicerale, 2020). At the mesosystem level, issues such as ineffective human resources practices, inadequate leadership and lack of supervision may contribute to the issue. Leaden and supervisors ought to influence employees to maintain set standards on even surpass those standards (Cicerale, 2020). Besides, at the mesosystem level, senior employees may fail to train new employees due to fear of competition (Baurn, 2002). At the exo-system level, the retail industry faces issues such as many unskilled workers who opt to do tasks that requires a wide range of skillset (Buarn, 2002). In addition, the retail industry is seen as lacking employee retention strategies or employee-oriented practices that may contribute to high turnover rate (All Answers, 2018).  At the macrosystem level other competitors may attract employees in a given store with the promise of higher salaries and better incentives (Mulky, 2013). However, further analysis of some of the factors or issues contributing to high employee turnover rate in retail stores from the individual to the microsystem level is recommended.



All answers. (2018). High Staff Turnover in Hotel Industry. https://ukdiss.com/examples/labour-turnover.php

Anderson, B. (2019). Gallup suggests that Employee Turnover in U.S. Businesses is a Small $1 Trillion Problem with a Simple Fix. https://business.linkedin.com/talent-solutions/blog/employee-retention/2019/gallup-suggests-employee-turnover-in-us-business-is-1-trillion-dollar-problem-with-simple-fix

Baurn, T. (2002). Skills and Training for the Hospitality Sector: A Review of Issues. Journal of Vocational Training and Education, 54(3), 343-359.

Bronfenbrenner, U., & Ceci, S. J. (1994). Nature-nurture reconceptualised: A bio-ecological modelPsychological Review, 10(4), 568–586. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/1995-08473-001

Cicerale, V. (2020). Turnover Rates in the Hospitality Industry and the Factors Contributing to Employee Loss or Retention. Johnsons and Wales University, pp. 1-15.

Kamarulzaman, N., Zulkeflee, N., Hamid, H., Sahari, S., & Halim, F. (2015). Exploring the Factors of High Turnover Rates in the Retail Industry in Negeri Sembilan. International Accounting and Business Conference. pp. 897-900.

Mulky, A. (2013). Distributional Challenges and Workable Solutions. IIMB Management Review, pp. 179-195.




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