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  1.  Case study patient profile   


    Case study on older people (55 to 65)australain first people and choose 2 co-morbidities that impoact on their functional status, plz choose one nuerlogical issue and one physical issue .please don’t choose dementia and diabetes. 


Subject Nursing Pages 3 Style APA


Case Scenario: Ischemic Stroke

Patient Overview

Eric (not his real name), 63 year of age, is Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander individual who has been regularly visiting the hospital this year over several health issues. Eric, who has four kids; two daughters and two sons, is an active cigarette smoker for the last 10 years; however, he quitted smoking this year as a result of a direction from his doctor over the consequences of smoking to his life. Eric is a community elder who obey the cultural rules of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. He drinks alcohol occasionally with his friends. He has been diagnosed with hypertension, obesity, and diabetes, which he is managing using medication and physical exercise.  Eric’s wife suffer from diabetes and hypertension. Two of his kids are also hypertensive and he notes that his father died of stroke. While the daughters do not drink alcohol or smoke, the sons are active cigarette smokers. Both of them live in one homestead, something that is common with their culture.  All her daughters and sons have attained education past high school. One of his grandchild is diabetic; however, the rest of the grandchildren have not shown any health issue.

Current Situation

Eric has been hospitalized as a result of sudden ischemic stroke. The patient has weakness or numbness on the face, leg and arm on the left side of the body. He looks confused and has trouble understanding other people or speaking.  He has trouble walking, and has lost coordination or balance. He also complains of headache whose cause has not been identified. Based on subjective and objective data, it is certain that the patient is suffering from ischemic stroke.

Although there are several risk factors that might have contributed to the condition the patient, age and lifestyle are the main ones. According to the study conducted by Boot et al. (2020), aging is the most robust risk factor for incidents of stroke which doubles every 10 years after the age of 55 years. With aging, “both cerebral micro- and macro-circulations undergo structural and functional alterations”. The client in the case scenario is 63 years old, hence the likelihood of the cause of stroke is actually his age. Secondly, the lifestyle of the patient is a risk factor to his condition. As stated before, the patient has been an active smoker and also drinks alcohol heavily. According to Chan et al. (2019), smoking nearly doubles the risk of having an ischemic stroke. Although the patient has stopped smoking, the impacts are still notable since he was an active smoker.

Stereotypes of aging in contemporary culture, particularly, among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primarily is common. Old people are not given best care as the young ones since it is believed that are more likely to die. A study conducted by Cipolla et al. (2018), reveals that some cases of death of old people are caused by stereotypes from family members as well as healthcare professionals. For example, in this case, the family members took long time to bring the patient to the hospital citing that they have no hopes that he will survive based on his condition and age.

Health History

There are two major comorbidities of ischemic stroke in this case scenario. The first one is hypertension or high blood pressure. A study conducted by Hung et al. (2016), reveals that hypertension or high blood pressure is the single most factor that causes about 50 percent of ischemic stroke. Individuals who have hypertension are more likely to develop stroke than normal people. This is evident in this case since the patient has been diagnosed with high blood pressure and manages it using medication. The second comorbidity is obesity that is also evident in this case. Other than being one of the risk factors of high blood pressure, excess fat in the body causes inflammation that results in poor blood flow, which causes inadequate flow of blood to the brain hence causing stroke.

The patient in this case has got two main health conditions, which according to health experts are likely to cause an ischemic stroke. Notably, stroke occurs when part of the brain is deprived of nutrients and oxygen (Sennfält et al., 2020). This occurs during high blood pressure when blood vessels are damaged and are unable to pump blood effectively to the brain. On the same note, being overweight greatly increases chances of having a stroke. Because of excess fat in the body, inflammation is likely to occur, which causes poor blood flow and potential blockages which are two major causes of stroke.


Boot, E., Ekker, M. S., Putaala, J., Kittner, S., De Leeuw, F. E., & Tuladhar, A. M. (2020). Ischaemic stroke in young adults: a global perspective. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry91(4), 411-417.

Chan, S. L., Edwards, N. J., Conell, C., Ren, X., Banki, N. M., Rao, V. A., & Flint, A. C. (2019). Age, race/ethnicity, and comorbidities predict statin adherence after ischemic stroke or myocardial infarction. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 2047487319861219.

Cipolla, M. J., Liebeskind, D. S., & Chan, S. L. (2018). The importance of comorbidities in ischemic stroke: impact of hypertension on the cerebral circulation. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism38(12), 2129-2149.

Hung, K. H., Liou, K. C., Hsu, K. N., & Hu, C. (2016). Disparities in ischemic stroke subtypes and risk factors between Taiwanese aborigines and Han Chinese in Taitung, Taiwan. International Journal of Gerontology10(1), 17-21.

Moyle, W., Parker, D., & Bramble, M. (2014). Care of older adults: A strengths-based approach. Cambridge University Press.

Sennfält, S., Pihlsgård, M., Petersson, J., Norrving, B., & Ullberg, T. (2020). Long-term outcome after ischemic stroke in relation to comorbidity–An observational study from the Swedish Stroke Register (Riksstroke). European stroke journal5(1), 36-46.






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