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Whether in a scholarly or practitioner setting, good research and data analysis should have the benefit of peer feedback. For this Discussion, you will post your response to the hypothesis test, along with the results. Be sure and remember that the goal is to obtain constructive feedback to improve the research and its interpretation, so please view this as an opportunity to learn from one another. To prepare for this Discussion: Review Chapters 10 and 11 of the Frankfort-Nachmias & Leon-Guerrero course text and the media program found in this week’s Learning Resources related to bivariate categorical tests. Create a research question using the General Social Survey dataset that can be answered using categorical analysis. By Day 3 Use SPSS to answer the research question. Post your response to the following: Include the General Social Survey Dataset’s mean of Age to verify the dataset you used. What is your research question? What is the null hypothesis for your question? What research design would align with this question? What dependent variable was used and how is it measured? What independent variable is used and how is it measured? If you found significance, what is the strength of the effect? Explain your results for a lay audience and further explain what the answer is to your research question. Be sure to support your Main Post and Response Post with reference to the week’s Learning Resources and other scholarly evidence in APA Style.




Subject Drug Abuse Pages 3 Style APA


Categorical Data Analysis


The GSS dataset (Mean of Age is 48.27) is used to assess the association between two categorical variables – Gender and belief in legalization of marijuana. This study tests if one’s gender influence their belief on the subject of marijuana legalization. The dependent variable is ‘Should Marijuana Be Legalized’ and the Independent variable is ‘Respondents Sex’.

The data shows that a majority of respondents were Female, as in the bar graph below.

Fig 1: Distribution of respondents’ gender.

Further, the data indicates that a majority of the respondents believed that marijuana should be legalized.

Fig 2: Bar chart of belief towards legalization of marijuana.

These descriptive statistics raise questions on whether females are more inclined towards legalization of marijuana. Therefore, this study delves on the research question – Does gender influence one’s belief on whether marijuana should be legalized?

The hypothesis to test is:

H0: There is no association between gender and take on marijuana legalization

H1: There is association between gender and take on marijuana legalization

Chi square test is used to test this hypothesis.

Chi-Square Tests
  Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) Exact Sig. (2-sided) Exact Sig. (1-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 2.362a 1 .124    
Continuity Correctionb 2.029 1 .154    
Likelihood Ratio 2.370 1 .124    
Fisher’s Exact Test       .144 .077
Linear-by-Linear Association 2.355 1 .125    
N of Valid Cases 332        
a. 0 cells (0.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 60.83.
b. Computed only for a 2×2 table

Table 1: Chi Square test table.

Based on the chi square significance p-value = 0.144 > 0.05, we conclude that the null hypothesis is rejected at 95% confidence level.

Further, the table below shows the effect sizes.

Symmetric Measures
  Value Approx. Sig.
Nominal by Nominal Phi .084 .124
Cramer’s V .084 .124
N of Valid Cases 332  


Table 2: Table of effects between the variables.

The table shows that both Phi and Cramer’s V are not significant.

The effects are low <0.1, hence the conclusion that there is little, if any, association between gender and take on marijuana legalization.

The consultation is that there is no significant association between the two variables. That is to say, though it seems that one’s gender influences their take on the marijuana legalization subject, the current data does not find enough evidence at 95% confidence level to support this notion.


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