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  1. Causes, Treatment Options and Prevention of Various Skin Conditions





    Discuss Causes, Treatment Options and Prevention of Various Skin Conditions




Subject Nursing Pages 7 Style APA


Moles are a type of skin growth that often appears as small, somewhat dark brown spots and are caused by clusters of cells with pigments. This skin condition usually appears during childhood and adolescence. A majority of people have 10-40 moles, some of which will fade away or change in appearance over time (Fontanillas et al., 2021). In most cases, moles are harmless and rarely become cancerous. One of the methods used to treat the condition is surgical excision whereby a dermatologist cuts out the whole mole then stitches the skin around to close the gap, if necessary. Another method is surgical shave in that a dermatologist uses a surgical blade to remove the mole. In terms of preventing this skin condition, people are advised to use sunscreens with a sun protection factor (SFP), use wide-brimmed hats, use sin-protective clothing such as shirts, long pants, and long sleeves, avoid burking in the sun during the peak hours (10 a.m. to 4 p.m.), and stay indoors or seek shade.


Freckles, also known as birthmarks, are colored spots on the skin that are either present during birth or develop just after birth. Freckles may appear in different colors like purple, red, white, pink, pale blue, black, tan, or brown. Some freckles are merely colorations on the surface of the skin while others may be raised on the skin surface or extend to tissues beneath the skin. The cause of freckles is unknown (Fowlkes, 2018). A majority of freckles are not inherited but some folk tales and myths exist regarding the cause of freckles. Nevertheless, none of these analogies have been proven to explain the real causes of freckles. In most cases, freckles do not need any form of treatment as some may tend to fade as the child grows older. However, those that appear raised in certain positions such as eyes can be treated using laser therapy or surgery. There are no known ways of preventing birthmarks but one could use sunscreens when outdoors.


Carcinoma is a serious type of skin cancer which develops in the cells known as melanocytes that produce melanin. This condition can also form in the eyes, and rare cases, inside one’s body such as throat or nose. The exact causes of carcinoma are unclear but physicians have suggested that constant exposure to tanning lamps and beds or ultraviolet radiation emanating from the sun may increase one’s risk of developing carcinoma (Sandhu et al., 2019). People under 40 years, especially women, have the highest risk of acquiring carcinoma. In terms of treatment, medical practitioners have suggested the surgery in case it develops into cancer. Radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, and hormone therapy may suffice. In line with the prevention, one should avoid direct sunlight during peak hours. On can also apply sunscreen with an SPF of more than 30. Wearing protective clothing, avoiding tanning lamps as well as beds can also help reduce the risk of getting carcinoma.


Acne is a type of skin condition that appears when one’s hair follicles become clogged with oil as well as dead skin cells. In most cases, acne causes blackheads, whiteheads, or pimples. This condition is most common among teenagers. however, it affects people of all ages. Other things that may trigger or worsen the condition include hormonal changes during puberty whereby the sebaceous gland tends to enlarge and make more sebum, certain medications, especially those that contain corticosteroids, lithium, or testosterone (Dréno, 2017). Consuming certain food, mostly those that are rich in carbohydrates such as chips, bagels, and bread may also cause the condition. Some of the producers used to treat acne include surgical procedures to remove the coagulated fats in the skin. Also, laser resurfacing can be used to smoothen skin. Other medications include retinoids, antibiotics, azelaic acid, salicylic acid, and dapsone. In terms of preventing the condition, people are advised to reduce the intake of fatty food and observe skincare/cleansing.


Warts are small growths, usually with a rough texture, that occur on the skin and in different locations in one’s body. Warts can appear like a cauliflower or a small blister on the skin. Warts are caused by a virus known as the human papillomavirus (HPV) family (Gerlero & Hernández-Martín, 2016). It has been estimated that one out of three children as well as teenagers develop warts but in adults on three to 5 percent have the condition because their immune system becomes profound and able to prevent any further development. The treatments available for this condition include salicylic acid usually incorporated in skin creams or gels. Cryotherapy, which uses freezing liquid can be sprayed on the wart to destroy the cells. Other doctors can recommend surgery to remove the wart and antibiotics. The common methods advisable to prevent warts include avoiding the use of personal items of people with warts and observing a healthy diet to boot one’s immune system.


Wrinkles are a natural phenomenon and are most prominent on skin that is exposed to direct sunlight such as the face, hands, neck, and forearms. Even though genetics mat determines one’s skin texture and structure, exposure to sunlight is a major contributor to wrinkles, mostly for people with light skin. Smoking and other pollutants may also cause wrinkles (Amer et al., 2018). Other physicians have suggested that repeated facial expressions, mostly facial movements such as smiling and squinting may lead to fine lines and wrinkles appearing on the face. To treat this condition, one is encouraged to use prescribed topical vitamin A retinoids, OTC wrinkle creams, laser skin resurfacing, chemical peel, botox, chemical peel, light source as well as radiofrequency treatments, prescribes topical antioxidants together with collagen. In other cases, observing a nutritious diet would be applicable. The most effective preventative measures include protecting one’s skin from direct sunlight by applying sunscreen, avoid smoking, eating a healthy diet that contains fruits and vegetables, and moisturizing one’s skin. 


Psoriasis is a type of skin disease that causes redness or itch scaly patches on the elbows, knees, and scalp. This condition is relatively common and long-term, usually with no cure. Psoriasis tends to go through a cycle by flaring for some weeks or months then subsiding for some time. The ailment is considered to be an immune deficiency problem that caused the skin to regenerate at relatively faster rates than normal (Phan et al., 2019). The common causes of psoriasis include stress, heavy alcohol consumption, certain medications such as lithium, antimalarial drugs, and high blood pressure medications, injury to the skin such as severe sunburn, bug bite as well as cuts, and infections. The treatments effective for Psoriasis include systematic oral and injected medications, phototherapy whereby the skin is exposed to certain types of UV light, and topical creams and ointments. The preventative measures include avoiding extreme weather conditions, eating nutritious meals, avoiding cuts, and using moisturizing ointments. 


Eczema is a long-term inflammatory skin disease that mostly affects the face. Usually, people tend to confuse eczema with acne or an allergic skin reaction. The common symptom of eczema includes pimples, irritated skin, and facial flushing. Other symptoms include eye problems and blushing easily. The common causes of eczema include bacterial infection, bites from skin mites known as Demodex folliculorum, and abnormalities in the blood vessels. In terms of treatments, physicians encourage the use of skin creams that aid in reducing inflammation as well as skin discoloration (Filaire et al., 2019). Examples of these creams include topical antibiotics, azelaic acid, benzoyl peroxide, and tretinoin. Eye drops could also be used to relieve eye symptoms, Antibiotics like erythromycin, minocycline, and tetracycline could also help. The preventative measures of eczema include using sunscreens with SPF of 30 and higher, reducing stress through activities that can reduce the presence of stress, avoiding overheating, avoiding alcohol consumption, and eating a lot of fruits and green vegetables. 


Vitiligo is a common ailment that causes patches or loss of skin color. Usually, the discolored regions tend to increase with time. Vitiligo can affect the skin in any part of the body. Also, it can affect hair as well as inside the mouth. The condition can affect people of all skin types, however, it is more noticeable on people with a darker complexion (Rodrigues et al., 2017). Vitiligo is usually associated with a disorder in one’s immune system, family history (hereditary), and trigger events such as severe sunburn, skin trauma, stress, and contact with a chemical. To treat this condition using sunscreen, phototherapy with UV light, skin camouflage, depigmentation, topical corticosteroids, and calcipotriene. Some researchers suggest that there is no real cure for vitiligo suggesting that preventive measures to the condition as also limited. However, pursuing pigment restoration can help, also one is encouraged to avoid direct exposure to sunlight during peak hours. 



Amer, M., Farag, F., Amer, A., ElKot, R., & Mahmoud, R. (2018). Dermapen in the treatment of wrinkles in cigarette smokers and skin aging effectively.

Dréno, B. (2017). What is new in the pathophysiology of acne, an overview. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, 31, 8-12.

Filaire, E., Vialleix, C., Cadoret, J. P., Dreux, A., & Berthon, J. Y. (2019). ExpoZen®: an active ingredient modulating reactive and sensitive skin microbiota.

Fontanillas, P., Alipanahi, B., Furlotte, N. A., Johnson, M., Wilson, C. H., Pitts, S. J., … & Auton, A. (2021). Disease risk scores for skin cancers. Nature communications, 12(1), 1-13.

Fowlkes, N. W. (2018). Evaluation of Oncolytic and Immunomodulatory Potential of the HSV-1 Live-Attenuated Vaccine Strain VC2 in an Immunocompetent Murine Melanoma Model.

Gerlero, P., & Hernández-Martín, Á. (2016). Treatment of warts in children: An update. Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition), 107(7), 551-558.

Phan, C., Beauchet, A., Burztejn, A. C., Severino‐Freire, M., Barbarot, S., Girard, C., … & Groupe de Recherche sur le Psoriasis de la Société Française de Dermatologie. (2019). Biological treatments for paediatric psoriasis: a retrospective observational study on biological drug survival in daily practice in childhood psoriasis. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, 33(10), 1984-1992.

Rodrigues, M., Ezzedine, K., Hamzavi, I., Pandya, A. G., Harris, J. E., & Vitiligo Working Group. (2017). New discoveries in the pathogenesis and classification of vitiligo. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 77(1), 1-13.


Sandhu, H. S., Kolomeyer, A. M., Lau, M. K., Shields, C. L., Schuchter, L. M., Nichols, C. W., & Aleman, T. S. (2019). Acute exudative paraneoplastic polymorphous vitelliform maculopathy during vemurafenib and pembrolizumab treatment for metastatic melanoma. Retinal cases & brief reports, 13(2), 103.




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