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    Identify and list factors that are leading to rise of chronic respiratory diseases.
    How these factors differ in high-income countries and, low and middle-income countries?
    Which co-morbidities usually exists with Chronic respiratory diseases?
    Identify triggering factors associated with Asthma.
    Which population groups are more prone to face the consequences of indoor and outdoor air pollution?




Subject Nursing Pages 4 Style APA


Chronic Respiratory Diseases

Chronic Respiratory Diseases (CRDs) affect the air duct and the lung due to the pervasiveness and frequent exposure to a toxic environment (Labaki and Han 2020). The prevalence of CRDs in society is mainly caused by tobacco smoke, air pollution, Occupational chemical and dust, and biomass fuel consumption.

            Factors causing CRDs are more prevalent in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) due to poorly laid out CRDs guidelines. Meager guidelines lead to ineffective implementation; for instance, concerning availability, only 30 of 137 LMICs (21.9%) contain national guidelines compared to High-income countries (HICs), where 33 out of 81(40.7%) contain national guidelines (Tabyshova et al. 2020). Furthermore, most guidelines from LMICs tend to ignore local data and preferably adopt guidelines from HICs without considering regional differences and their economic power.

            People suffering from CRDs tend to experience other long-standing conditions. Co-occurrence of a disease with the primary condition is usually referred to as comorbidity (Kiani and Ahmadi 2021). Examples of such conditions include; Arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, depression, cancer, asthma, and osteoporosis.

            Asthma is believed to be caused or triggered by genetic and environmental factors (Bass 2021). Asthma triggers are usually caused by outdoor air pollution, allergies, infections linked to influenza, and Tobacco Smoke.

            Aggregated effects of outdoor and indoor air pollution have led to massive premature deaths annually exacerbated by cardiovascular and respiratory infections (Dong et al. 2020). Adverse effects to air pollution are believed to be influenced by location, age, or an underlying health condition; thus, susceptibility is more linked with people from a lower socio-economic class. Population groups that are more vulnerable to air pollution include; people with cardiovascular diseases, infants and young children, aged adults, people who lack access to healthcare, and people with lung diseases such as asthma.




Bass, P., 2021. Causes and Risk Factors of Asthma. Very well health. 11th May 2021, https://www.verywellhealth.com/asthma-causes-and-risk-factors-4014328.

Dong, X., Zhao, X., Peng, F. and Wang, D., 2020. Population-based air pollution exposure and its influence factors by integrating air dispersion modeling with GIS spatial analysis. Scientific reports10(1), pp.1-12.

Kiani, F.Z. and Ahmadi, A., 2021. Prevalence of different comorbidities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among Shahrekord Persian cohort study in southwest Iran. Scientific Reports11(1), pp.1-8.

Labaki, W.W and Han, M.K., 2020. Chronic respiratory diseases: a global view. The Lancet. 11th May 2021, https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanres/article/PIIS2213-2600(20)30157-0/fulltext.

Tabyshova, A., Hurst, J.R., Soriano, J.B., Checkley, W., Huang, E.W.C., Trofor, A.C., Flores-Flores, O., Alupo, P., Gianella, G., Ferdous, T. and Meharg, D., 2020. Gaps in COPD guidelines of low-and middle-income countries: A systematic scoping review. Chest.


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