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  1. Common pathophysiological changes


    Describe some of the more common pathophysiological changes and abnormal findings associated with musculoskeletal, metabolic, and multisystem health dysfunctions. Explain what symptoms are associated with the findings and how these affect patient function.  


Subject Nursing Pages 3 Style APA


The Pathophysiology of Musculoskeletal, Metabolic Syndrome, Multisystem Health Dysfunction

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are described as conditions that affect an individual’s bones, muscles, and joints. The examples of MSDs include fibromyalgia, bone fractures, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), tendinitis, osteoarthritis and tendinitis. The symptoms of MSDs include stiff joints, recurrent pain, swelling and dull ache. MSDs can affect the any major area of a person’s musculoskeletal system including shoulders, neck, back, legs, knees and feet. MSDs are often caused by age, occupation, activity level, lifestyle and family history (Cucu et al., 2017). Moreover, other causes of MSDs include sitting in the same for position for long, lifting heavy weights, engaging in repetitive motions, and maintaining poor posture at work.

The most acknowledged proposition to illustrate the pathophysiology of the metabolic syndrome is insulin resistance. The metabolic syndrome is also known as the insulin resistance disorder. It described as group of illnesses that emerge together, escalating an individual’s peril of heart illness, stroke and type 2 diabetes. The most common disorders associated with metabolic syndrome include diabetes, heart disease, liver cancer, amplified blood pressure, increased blood sugar, surfeit body fat around the waist and irregular cholesterol or triglyceride levels, and liver cirrhosis. The majority of the disorders linked with metabolic syndrome do not present noticeable symptoms or signs (Rochlani et al., 2017). One notable sign is an outsized waist circumference. If an individual’s blood sugar level is elevated, they might perceive the symptoms of diabetes including increased dehydration and urination, exhaustion and distorted vision.

The multisystem health dysfunction occurs when damaged tissue molecules (DAMPS), infection or bacterial toxin molecules (PAMPS), and reduced protective CYP 450/ mitochondrial metabolism result in uncontrolled swelling that troubles endothelial, epithelial, immune, and mitochondrial cell homeostasis resulting in multiple organ failure (Carcillo et al., 2017). Multisystem health dysfunction is caused by an injury, illness or illnesses that cause an unregulated systematic inflammatory feedback, resulting in tissue damage. The symptoms of multisystem health dysfunction vary depending on the organ affected. Nevertheless, common symptoms include altered mental state, respiratory weakening, a decline in cardiac function, unbalanced metabolic status and a compromised fluid balance.




Carcillo, J. A., Podd, B., Aneja, R., Weiss, S. L., Hall, M. W., Cornell, T. T., … & Nguyen, T. C. (2017). Pathophysiology of pediatric multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Pediatric critical care medicine: a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies18(3 Suppl 1), S32. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5333491/

Cucu, A., Shreder, K., Kraft, D., Rühle, P. F., Klein, G., Thiel, G., & Fournier, C. (2017). Decrease of markers related to bone erosion in serum of patients with musculoskeletal disorders after serial low-dose radon spa therapy. Frontiers in immunology8, 882. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2017.00882/full

Rochlani, Y., Pothineni, N. V., Kovelamudi, S., & Mehta, J. L. (2017). Metabolic syndrome: pathophysiology, management, and modulation by natural compounds. Therapeutic advances in cardiovascular disease11(8), 215-225. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1753944717711379



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