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    1. Identify and fully explain the four types of police supervisors presented in chapter 5.

      The textbook discusses a “Paradigm Shift” in police after 9/11. In regard to this, fully explain
      and discuss the following: fusion centers, intelligence-led policing, and predictive policing.

      3. In regards to seeking the truth, what are the challenges and possible solutions presented in the textbook to the adversarial system inside of courtrooms?





Subject Law and governance Pages 4 Style APA


Common Terms in Criminal Management

In the book, Criminal Justice, Peak (2016) presents a paradigm shift where he defines various terms and discusses their role in criminal justice. This paper discusses the following terms; fusion centers, intelligence-led policing, and predictive policing.

Fusion Centers

A fusion center refers to both effective and efficient mechanisms used for exchanging information and intelligence, streamlining criminal operations, maximization of resources and improving the ability to manage terrorism and crime through collecting and merging data from various sources. They are state-owned centers that act as security focal points in states and urban centers. They receive, analyze, gather and share threat-related information among agencies like State, Local, Tribal and Territorial (SLTT), federal and private sector partners (Peak, 2016). Fusion centers play a primary role in providing a mechanism where private partners, public safety and law enforcement agencies can interact, discuss and come with mechanisms of improving the ability to prevent any form of criminal activities and safeguard homeland security. Fusion centers contain various security information. Therefore, police officers, building inspectors, and firefighters do not need to search for incomplete information, while they can readily get the information from fusion centers. Fusion centers have a fusion center focus group that recommends the crime guidelines including different types of criminal activities. The group also provides all intelligence services to different law enforcement and crime prevention agencies. 



Intelligence-led Policing (ILP)

This is a policing model whose work is to assess and manage various law enforcement risks.  ILP is a model and practice that leverages and controls the technological changes in collecting data and analysis of information to come up with information that can be used effectively and efficiently (Fritsvold, 2020). ILP applies modern technology to distribute law enforcement resources to place and people. The law enforcement resources are distributed based on how well they can do the most good to places and people. The efficiency of ILP depends upon the cooperation between the members of the community who have adequate information and observation relating to criminal activities. This information can be discussed with law enforcement agencies. Intelligence-led Policing comprises of various components such as Community-Oriented Policing, Hot-Spot Policing, Partnership Model of Policing, and Problem-oriented policing. All these work together to ensure criminal activities are assessed and managed accordingly.

Predictive Policing

Predictive policing involves the application of analytical techniques, predictive analytics and mathematical method to identify potential criminal activities. There are various categories of predictive policing. They include the methods of predicting offenders, the technique of predicting crimes, methods of predicting crime victims and the methods of predicting the crime identities and perpetrators. Predictive policing has proved to be a revolutionary mechanism of predicting and stopping different kinds of a crime of crimes before occurrence (Peak, 2016).  Although predictive crimes perform essential roles, they cannot foretell the future of criminal activities. Therefore, its work is restricted to policing approaches and predicting elements of the crime. This way, it serves as a bridge of building the relationship between law enforcement, the criminal investigation department, and the community. The community plays an essential role in predictive policing since they provide information that can be used to predict and stop crime.

In short, crime management and prevention involves an array of activities. These activities enhance the interaction between law enforcement agencies and people. However, for crime management processes to be successful, Peak stresses they must be aided with relevant technology that facilitates the collection of information and availing the information to relevant law-enforcing departments.





Fritsvold, E. (2020). What is Intelligence-Led Policing? (ILP). University of San Diego. https://onlinedegrees.sandiego.edu/what-is-intelligence-led-policing/

Peak, K. (2016). Justice Administration: Police, Courts, and Corrections Management. Pearson






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