Communication with people who have learning disabilities
For this assignment you are required to choose ONE of the following scenarios:
• Alan is a 24 year old man with autism. He needs to have a blood test at the hospital.
• Rishma is a 54 year old woman with Down’s Syndrome. Her doctor has told her she needs to lose weight as she is at risk of developing Type 2 diabetes.
• Molly is 15. She has moderate learning disabilities and was recently diagnosed with epilepsy.
Imagine you are to make a resource to support the person with their health or wellbeing need and then answer the following questions:
(NB The word count is indicative. This means it is a guide, not a requirement. But your essay should be 2000 words +/- 10% excluding the questions themselves and references.)
1. Think about the person you are you designing it for. What do you need to take into account when designing your resource? (100 words)
- What format will you use? You could use a leaflet, an information sheet, a social story, or any other format that is effective. How did you reach your decision? (200 words)
- How will you populate your resource? There are lots of sources of pictorial information online and through programmes like Widget or Boardmaker. (100 words
- What is it about your resource that makes it accessible? (100 words)
- Are there any drawbacks to using the resource you’ve developed? (100 words)
Now, please answer the following question:
With reference to the literature, how does your resource meet the needs of the person with a learning disability? (1400 words).
Communication with People who have Learning Disabilities
Working with somebody with a learning inability may challenge your concept of what communication is, and how you make yourself perceived. It might make you consider your manner of speaking and your body language just as the words you use, and advise you that communication is not just about talking but also about tuning in. Communication is truly significant in light of the fact that it is simply the method of passing a message across. On the off chance that we try not to discuss obviously with one another, there’s no reason for imparting the same by any means. Everybody can impart and everybody is a unique in the manner they impart the knowledge. There are many meanings of what communication is and how it is passed across especially among individuals who have learning disabilities. Maybe the least complex perspective about communication is that it is the giving of information starting with one individual then onto the next utilizing any implies conceivable. One might be astonished to realize that these people with learning disability also get a large portion of their information across through our non-verbal communication. The manner in which individuals convey a message is comprised of body language, tone of voice, and word.
Designing the Resource
Molly is a 15 year old who has moderate learning disability. She was recently diagnosed with epilepsy and will now require communication on the management of her condition. Individuals with learning incapacities frequently decipher non-verbal communication and non-verbal communication in understanding straightforward ordinary associations. It is fundamental when speaking with somebody with a learning incapacity to give them an opportunity to take in the words being said, and to convey more gradually than you may typically so as to permit them to handle what it is that you are imparting (Cluley 2018, p. 25). Utilizing visual aids or prompts to associate communication is one significant method of supporting individuals to have a more noteworthy comprehension of what is being passed on to them.
It is regularly difficult to tell what support is accessible to assist individuals with learning handicaps, which will help them to impart all the more without any problem. One procedure which can be useful in regular daily existence is making any materials or data in a more open format in the form of an information sheet (Cluley 2018, p. 27). It is frequently referred to as easy to read. Making something simple to read includes separating the content into little sentences, and utilizing pictures or images to pass on the information that is being said in the content.
Since the patient is only experiencing moderate learning disability, the information sheet will be effective in helping to pass across the message. The use of pictures will make it easy to understand the content with regards to self-care and what to do in case of an epileptic attack. Short sentences to help explain the pictures is also necessary. It will work effectively in this patient whose condition is not severe. Keeping it short ensures that comprehending the message will not be a problem.
The Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) will be employed to help nurses in dealing with their resources. AAC incorporates the entirety of the manners in which individuals share their thoughts and sentiments without talking. People as a whole use types of AAC consistently. Some use AAC when they utilize looks or signals as opposed to talking. Others use AAC when they compose a note and pass it to a companion or collaborator (Sanders, Page and Lesher, 2021, p. 517). People may not understand how regularly they convey without talking. Individuals with serious discourse or language issues may require AAC to help them impart information. Some may utilize everything at once. Others may say a few words but still use AAC for longer sentences or with individuals they do not know well. AAC can help in school, at work, and when chatting with loved ones. Hence, nurses need to be able to understand how AAC can be used to enhance communication with people with learning disabilities.
Accessibility of Resources
There are two primary sorts of AAC including independent frameworks and helped frameworks (Broomfield et al 2019, p. 270). A nurse may utilize one or the two sorts. The vast majority who use AAC utilize a mix of AAC types to impart the information to patients who have learning disabilities.
One does not need to bother with anything besides their own body to utilize independent frameworks. These incorporate motions, non-verbal communication, looks, and some sign jargon.
A supported framework utilizes a type of hardware or gadget. There are two kinds of supported frameworks; fundamental and cutting edge. A pen and paper is an essential supported framework. Highlighting letters, words, or pictures on a board is a fundamental helped framework (Cluley 2018, p. 29). Contacting letters or pictures on a PC screen that represents you is a cutting edge helped framework. A portion of these discourse producing gadgets, or SGDs, can communicate in various dialects.
Drawbacks of using the Resources
Working with a Speech-Language Pathologist (SLP) will test how well individuals can talk and comprehend. The SLP can help track down the privilege AAC framework (Broomfield et al 2019, p. 272). One may utilize an essential framework first and may require it for just a brief timeframe. This may occur on the off chance that he or she had mouth surgery or a stroke and the learning disability returns. Unfortunately, it might require some investment to get an all the more innovative framework, in the event that it is needed. Few out of every odd gadget works for each individual, so it is critical to track down the correct one for individual patients (Sanders, Page and Lesher, 2021, p. 520). As nurses, it is imperative that the correct guidance is offered to the patient with a learning disability with regards to the most suitable AAC framework. However, the mere process of determining the right approach is quite tedious since there is no test that will be able to determine the outcome.
Meeting the needs of Individuals with Learning Disabilities through Resources
Conveying a message when a patient is suffering from learning disabilities is very difficult. Individuals who do not talk are in a tough spot in the speaking world. It tends to be confusing and frustrating when messages cannot be given viably. This is baffling for both the non-talking individual and their correspondence accomplice. Regularly a non-talking individual will have numerous considerations they wish to convey. How would they get these words out? At the point when an individual cannot talk, others regularly make decisions about their capability, potential, and capacity to think and learn. However, the individual who does not talk will rapidly discover that a few things are not difficult to convey. For example, going after the TV remote to recommend you need to change the channel. They likewise discover that a few things are difficult to convey like the TV show that helps you to remember a relative who is no more.
Basically, putting participants who use AAC into the overall instruction study hall is not almost enough. Frequently, participants speak with their care staff rather than their general instruction educator and peers, or basically do not convey or are locked in by any means. A cooperative group approach is expected to: (a) effectively increment AAC clients’ commitment and friend communication results in a comprehensive setting, and (b) improve the general mentalities and viewpoints of staff and participants who interface with AAC clients (Broomfield et al 2019, p. 275). The same approach should be used when trying to communicate with Molly, regarding her care and management strategy for epilepsy. Simply having the AAC framework is not enough. There is a need to promote approaches that will ensure the outcomes are pleasant.
As a rule, most examinations yielded increments in communication openings for AAC clients when mediations were utilized. Topics examined in this part incorporate group approach, time responsibility, peer preparing, support staff, and parental contribution with respect to triumphs and difficulties. All these are considered to be important considerations for the development of an effective communication plan for patients with learning disabilities.
The group approach used which zeroed in on the utilization of month to month gatherings and a synergistic group way to deal with assistance make the objective participants effective in the standard setting. Albeit the two investigations created positive outcomes, they perceived the measure of time needed in week after week and month to month gatherings time that that ordinarily is notaccessible (Wedell 2017, p. 221). This presents yet another challenge that is associated with the use of such resources in communicating with patients with learning disabilities. Fulfilment with the community oriented interaction is often preferred since it permits such individuals to help and enable one another, instead of depending exclusively upon the discourse language pathologist (SLP). Hence, aside from focusing on resources that will make communication easier, it is clear that there is also a need of considering other developmental approaches that will help patients to constantly become communicators.
It is perceived that their absence of remembering all partners for the undertaking as an impediment in their investigation, expressing the significance of group coordinated effort and investigating key partners’ viewpoints (Wedell 2017, p. 221). It is also noted that individuals did not effectively include exceptional instructors or SLPs in their intercession interaction, and thought this would have expanded gadget use and friend collaborations in the homeroom. Therefore, nurses are also expected to play a significant role in ensuring that they offer assistance to these patients even as they use the available resources to help with their communication.
In relation to time responsibility, it is agreed that support undertakings and synergistic time responsibilities are not generally achievable in the school setting. In the event that time is made accessible, participants could be exceptionally effective executing their AAC gadgets intercessions and conveying viably in a comprehensive setting (Wedell 2017, p. 221). Unfortunately, in the hospital setting, time is not a luxury that many patients are awarded. This presents yet another challenge since individuals with learning disabilities will need to use resources which they are not fully accustomed to. Hence, it may not turn out to be as effective as expected since there will be using utilizing the AAC gadgets.
Group and parent members shared that week after week gatherings could be a test for a few groups, particularly if there are a few participants requiring broad backings in a single school. The time spent on one participant may be seen as influencing staff accessibility to work with or talk about different participants (Wedell 2017, p. 222). Notwithstanding, hierarchical changes could bring about effective amount of time for each participant’s group.
One of the obstructions of carrying out peer preparing is an absence of approved preparing materials and methodology. That is yet another factor which nurses must take into consideration when dealing with patients who have learning disabilities. Notwithstanding this, the utilization of such preparing programs end up being very powerful in expanding participant commitment and gadget use. Peer preparing programs got positive input from guardians, paraprofessionals, and educators, just as sensational expansions in the general number of correspondence openings. There is an inundation way to deal with model utilization of the centre participant’s specialized gadget (Caron, Light and McNaughton, 2021, p. 26). The entirety of such approaches had duplicates of the center jargon overlay and were urged to utilize it during homeroom exercises to help model for him. The educator’s overlay was projected onto the screen consistently. Other approaches utilize an alternate methodology that elaborate cooperation with the interventionist to find out about how discourse creating gadgets were utilized to impart, distinctive correspondence openings with the center participants, and shared techniques to connect with them.
A comparative methodology in the peer preparation where individuals are educated about the rudiments of AAC and explicit difficulties the center participant was experiencing with his day by day correspondence was also used. Be that as it may, in this investigation the center participant was available for the peer preparing and others were offered the chance to work on speaking with him. In any case, they yielded vastly different, more negative outcomes (Caron, Light and McNaughton, 2021, p. 22). The center participant never showed a craving to utilize his specialized gadget and kept utilizing discourse as his essential type of correspondence, despite the fact that it was muddled (Broomfield et al 2019, p. 279). Albeit the companion preparing program did fundamentally increment his correspondence openings, it didn’t expand his AAC gadget use, which was the goal of the examination. Therefore, another challenge lies with the participant’s confidence in using the suggested AAC gadget to help make communication more effective. In such a case, the nurse handling the patient will still experience communication barriers since the individual is unwilling to use the resources presented as he or she is already used to communicating through other approaches.
It is clear that not all mediations end up being fruitful, as exhibited by the shifted results for every participant as highlighted by scholars. A few participants gained ground and experienced achievement, while others did not. Following the intercession when the participants got back to class, three elements were vital looking after progress: instructor commonality, perspectives, and solace with the gadget. One educator recommended having the participant utilize her discourse rather than her specialized gadget, despite the fact that her discourse was muddled (Caron, Light and McNaughton, 2021, p. 21). The creators attested it is fundamentally critical to decide acknowledgment of AAC in the homeroom.
In relation to support staff, some paraprofessionals play a significant part in effective consideration, as they are essentially the ones who are with the participants. Paraprofessional preparing was demonstrated to be compelling in expanding the number of communications between AAC clients and their companions, and the paraprofessionals in the study portrayed their own encounters as certain and valuable. Sadly, the analysts brought up that paraprofessionals frequently could not join the shared group gatherings since they should have been working straightforwardly with the participants.
Considering the review of literature provided above, it is clear that the patient’s with learning disabilities are the most difficult to communicate with. As a nurse, there are various essential pieces of information which need to be shared with the patient with regards to their care and even medical decisions. However, when learning disabilities exist, it becomes impossible to effectively communicate. That is why various resources such as the AAC gadgets are often introduced. Unfortunately, more challenges are experienced with these gadgets as there is no proper amount of time to educate the patient’s on its use. This leads them to avoid using the gadgets since they are not fully accustomed to them. Also, the nurses are needed to have the required skill to assist these patients with the use of gadgets. Unfortunately, not all have the knowledge background that is needed. Therefore, these are some of the factors that need to be addressed to ensure that communication with patients who have learning disabilities is improved in future.
Broomfield, K. et al. (2019) ‘Appraising the quality of tools used to record patient-reported outcomes in users of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC): a systematic review’, Quality of Life Research, 28(10), pp. 2669–2683. doi: 10.1007/s11136-019-02228-3.
Caron, J., Light, J. and McNaughton, D. (2021) ‘Effects of a Literacy Feature in an Augmentative and Alternative Communication App on Single-Word Reading of Individuals with Severe Autism Spectrum Disorders’, Research & Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 46(1), pp. 18–34. doi: 10.1177/1540796921992123.
Cluley, V. (2018) ‘From “Learning disability to intellectual disability”—Perceptions of the increasing use of the term “intellectual disability” in learning disability policy, research and practice’, British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 46(1), pp. 24–32. doi: 10.1111/bld.12209.
Sanders, E. J., Page, T. A. and Lesher, D. (2021) ‘School-Based Speech-Language Pathologists: Confidence in Augmentative and Alternative Communication Assessment’, Language, Speech & Hearing Services in Schools, 52, pp. 512–528. doi: 10.1044/2020_LSHSS-20-00067.
Wedell, K. (2017) ‘Points from the SENCo-Forum: SENCos coping with the relative definition of special educational needs’, British Journal of Special Education, 44(2), pp. 220–222. doi: 10.1111/1467-8578.12171.