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  1. Community Development



    You are to design a Community Development case study or plan. Your plan will address a particular issue and desired changes a group want to address.

    Choose one of the scenarios below:

    1. A group of local residents wanting to create a more welcoming neighborhood.

    2. High school students who want to contribute to the way the local council is addressing the issues for young people.

    3. Recently arrived refugees who are keen to set up a space to meet each other.

    4. A community group of your choice and their desired outcome – please talk to/ email your lecturer before starting your case study

    Be specific in the kind of project you are describing, and the community development processes involved. Be clear to define who is in the group.

    Assessment criteria:

    Project aims and objectives are clearly stated and suit a community work approach (20%)

    Community work approach or model is well defined, and rationale for its selection is provided (20%)

    Strategies are designed to meet the aims and objectives of the project (20%)

    Clear use of tools to measure the effectiveness of the project (10%)

    Participation strategies are effectively outlined (10%)

    Critical analysis of the limitations and weaknesses of your project and approach (10%)



Subject Project Management Pages 7 Style APA


Community Development Plan


This project is grounded towards the creation of awareness, a sense of community ownership, and empowering individuals to participate in water conservation and sanitization activities.


Adequate water supply and sanitization are characterized by universal access to clean water. In the UK, water conservation and sanitization are critical issues. Although most of the UK citizens have good access to quality water, community participation in water supply and sanitization is a significant challenge. The government of the United Kingdom prioritizes on continuous water supply and promotion of sanitization. The primary aim of permanent water conservation and sanitization activities is to facilitate the health and well-being of UK citizens.  In the past, some counties in the UK have faced several problems relating to sanitization and water supply. Some of the common water conservation and sanitization problems include lack of community participation in maintenance, management, planning health, and decision making (Manouseli, 2019). Second, the country has a comprehensive water supply and conservation system. This needs improvement and better control, calling for the participation of the local community. Third, there is a shortage of well-trained staff to handle water supply and sanitization systems. Therefore, there is a need for the local community to participate in activities that promote adequate water supply and sanitization activities. There is a close link between health, water supply, and sanitization. When the local community participates in these activities, they create a healthy environment that promotes human life.



Project Goal

The main goal of this project is to improve the long-term participation and ownership of water supply and sanitization systems in Dudley borough.


The objectives of the community development plan include: You could makes these objectives SMART.

Creation of awareness among the residents on the importance of water conservation, and sanitization.  Awareness creation is one of the essential steps towards helping residents understand the importance of water supply and sanitization systems in their borough. Awareness creation also helps residents understand the aims and objectives of water supply and sanitization systems in their community. Individually, awareness will be driven to promoting water conservation.

Secondly, the project aims at promoting the participation of residents and community groups in the construction and use of complementary water conservation systems. Complimentary water conservation systems such as tanks used for collecting rainwater are significant sources of water among the local households. However, many residents ignore the complimentary water conservation systems by depending on tap water. Encouraging residents to participate in the construction of reservoir systems reduces water shortages.

The third objective is promotion of proper sanitization activities. Proper sanitization practices are critical towards achieving good health. Engaging the local community in the construction and use of toilets facilitates good health. There is a need to develop and implement effective sanitization and health activities. This can be done by educating the local residents.


The Project Focus

The community development plan was developed after consolation with the county government of Dudley. After a consultation, it was revealed that there is a need to encourage the local community to participate in water supply and sanitization programs. Further, the consultation stressed the need for awareness creation and community education as this improves the local resident’s knowledge of the water cycle. When the local community fails to understand the water cycle, they can never participate in water conservation activities, sanitization, and other relevant activities that promote good health. Individuals should understand the relationship between sanitization, water supply, and health. For this to be achieved, various community approach models were used to help the residents of Dudley borough understand the importance of participating in sanitization and water supply activities.

Models for Community Participation in Water Conservation and Sanitization and Their Rationale

Resident Participation Model

Resident Participation Model is a unique model that involves critical thinking about the issue at hand. The implementation of sanitation and water conservation project will require participation of the residents. In most cases, the residents of a particular location can only participate in the project if they are included in the planning, goal setting, and implementation of the project (Brisson, & Roll, 2014).  However, resident participation is enhanced through grassroots mobilization. This model drives members of a community towards achieving particular goals of the project. The model outlines essential elements for improved outcomes of the project. The capacity of the community is always realized through interactions among individuals. This interaction enables individuals of the community to solve a common problem and improve the well-being of the community (Lee, 2019). Resident participation models involve several stages. The first stage is mobilization.  Mobilization is a typical process that brings together members of a community to participate in a typical project. In this case, for example, the residents of the Dudley community will be mobilized to participate in various water supply and sanitization activities. Mobilization may begin by inviting a small number of residents to meet about the issues.  This can culminate in a massive number of residents using their influence and power to influence the decision-making process. Mobilization will help in developing a comprehensive initiative that brings various stakeholders together to participate in sanitization and water conservation activities.

Resident participation is always an essential process in community development activities. It instills a positive attitude into individuals towards improving the quality of life among the community members. According to critical learning theory, residents develop a positive attitude that ensures the quality outcome of the process when they interact and get involved in the decision-making process (Arab et al, 2015). The model will empower and create a positive attitude in individuals, encourage them to take part in sanitization and water conservation activities. This model is supported by critical learning theory that outlines that open communication allows individuals to learn the importance of various projects they undertake.

Alain Thomas’ Model of Engagement

This model outlines factors that promote participation of people. These factors include control, consultation, shared power, and communication (Parkman & Van Allen, 2019). Whenever these factors interact, the outcomes may be positive or negative, depending on how they are effectively used. Positive communication will be an essential factor in engaging Dudley borough residents to participate in water conservation and sanitization activities. Further, a consultation will help in getting the views of residents on how they can effectively participate in the process.

Strategies for Participation in the Project

To realize the positive outcome of the process, various strategies will be involved. First, ensuring the active engagement of locals in the decision making process. Community development projects such as water conservation and sanitization directly affect the residents. When residents take part in decision making, their views are included in the project; this reduces any looming resistance. Active involvement in the process can be enhanced by organizing seminars, workshops, and meetings for individuals. Another way is through engaging the community members towards understanding community issues and their political, social, and economic impacts. Helping the residents to understand the importance of water conservation and sanitization will enable them to draw the economic the social, economic, health benefits of the project (Marko, 2014). This will be achieved through education, creation of awareness. Further, the residents will be educated on the significance of participating in sanitization and water conservation activities. Public education will be conducted through seminars and meetings to inform the residents about the needs of participating in water conservation and sanitization activates.

Tools for Measurements


Surveys help in measuring the project before it commences and after completion of the project (Fincham & Draugalis, 2013) Surveys will help in seeking residents’ opinions on the effectiveness of the project; this will be done before and after the projects. The residents will be given ample time to give their thoughts on what they think about the project.


Interviews help people to present their thoughts about a particular activity. The residents will be interviewed to establish whether participation in water conservation and sanitization has impacted on their lives. These opinions collected before and after completion of the project will be compared to measure the outcome of the process.

Limitations of the Project

While the main aim is to see a successful outcome, the project will also face several challenges. For example, some residents are naturally difficult to deal with. Therefore, they are likely to resist the project. This project involves the participation of residents in water conservation and sanitization. Opposing to participate will limit the plan for reaching its intended goals. Community participatory projects require a long term-construction process. Stages such as forming community organizations, creating awareness, and conducting public meetings to facilitate the participation of the residents is a long term process that may ultimately affect the outcome of the project.

Overall, sanitization and water conservation are critical issues towards maintaining good health and well-being of people. This paper has outlined a community development plan to enhance residents’ participation in water conservation and sanitization.


Arab, M., Ghavami, B., Akbari Lakeh, M., Yaghmaie, M., & Hosseini-Zijoud, S. M. (2015). Learning Theory: Narrative Review. Retrieved from http://www.ijmedrev.com/article_68672_9a2c1b5b7fac9fe1fb411b3084513736.pdf

Brisson, D., & Roll, S. (2014).  Adult Education Model of Resident Participation: Building Community Capacity and Strengthening Neighborhood-Based Activities in a Comprehensive Community Initiative (CCI.)

Fincham, J. E., & Draugalis, J. E. (2013). The importance of survey research standards. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3578336/

Lee, M. (2019). Undefined. HANGDO BUSAN, 37, 507-534. doi:10.19169/hd.2019.2.37.507

Marko, N. (2014). 4 ways to promote community participation and engagement. Retrieved from https://www.comm-dev.org/blog/entry/4-ways-to-promote-community-participation-and-engagement

Manouseli, D. (2019). Evaluating the Effectiveness of Residential Water Efficiency Initiatives in England: Influencing Factors and Policy Implications. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11269-018-2176-1

Parkman, T. J., & Van Allen, J. (2019). A social-ecological model of youth engagement in physical activity. PsycEXTRA Dataset. Doi: 10.1037/e507692019-001



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