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    1.Discuss recent trends in population growth and structure in the two countries, explaining where they might be in the demographic transition. How are their population futures likely to compare over the next 20 years?

    2. Highlight and comment on the major trends in the rate of poverty and the level and structure of inequality and in their HDIs?

    3. Compare the growth paths of the two countries and the problems they face going forward.




Subject Geography Pages 8 Style APA


Comparing China and India: Assignment 2


It is estimated that China’s population is 1,417,155,868 according to the United Nations, making it the largest population globally (Zadro, 2016). The population had grown by 2013 to 1,360,720,000 (Jacques, 2012). Generally, China’s population density is estimated to be 145 people per square kilometer (PPSK), ranking 81 notwithstanding the fact that country ranks first in terms of population (Dougherty & Valli, 2016). The figures for population density between China’s largest cities vary: Shanghai has a population density of about 3,800 PPPK and Hong Kong 68,400 PPSK (Jacques, 2012).

The World Bank regards China as an upper-middle nation with approximately 10% population within the country depending on $1 per day. China’s population has for a long time been influenced by political issues. In the decades past, China registered a fast population growth that led to the enactment of the “one child policy.” Out of worries that the reduced birth rate and aging population will damage China’s future economic development, the ‘one child policy’ was ended in 2016. China’s economic development and growth has been associated with its cheap and abundant workforce, alongside low social costs (Zadro, 2016). Nonetheless, with the number of young Chinese dropping and the number of aged Chinese increasing, there is no certainty that China’s economy will continue growing at its current rapid rate. China has an abnormal male to female ratio; it has more men than women.

China’s population, by predication, will be maximum in 2028 with a dwindling workforce as well as an above-65 years population of about 240 million (Dougherty & Valli, 2016). In the next 20 years, China’s population is projected to be 1,424,791,461. Also, China has another very critical demographic challenge as a result of sex-selective abortion along with its one-child policy, resulting in a 6 boys per every 5 girls ratio.

Conversely, India’s population is currently estimated to be 1,359,414 according to the U.N. data, making it the world’s second most populated and seventh largest nation (Lin & Zhou, 2011).  Between 2001 and 2011, the country’s population grew by about 17.7% (181.5 million people) (Naseem, 2017) and the country has equally doubled in its population size in the past 40 years (Ivanovitch, 2018). It is anticipated that India will unseat China as the most populated nation globally in the near future. Its present yearly population growth rate is at 1.11%. The country’s average population density stands at 412 PPSK, making it rank 31st globally. Ethnically, India’s population is 3% Mongoloid, 25% Dravidian, 72% Indo-Aryan. Different religions exist in India: Hinduism (80%), Islam (13%), Sikhs (1.9%), Buddhists (0.89%), and Jains (0.4%) of the country’s population (Lin & Zhou, 2011).

Whereas the number of people living in India’s urban regions has over the past 20 years increased, nearly 67% of its population still live in its rural areas (Srinivasan, 2006). In the next 20 years, India’s population is projected to be 1,590,281,887. Whereas India’s population n growth has remarkably slowed in the last few years, it is growing quickly relative to China and it is estimated to outpace China’s population by 2028, when China and India will approximately be 1.55 billion population.


China, for decades, has experienced a sustained decrease in its poverty levels and rates for its rural population (Zadro, 2016). The latest approximations, according to the International Poverty Line (IPL) of 1.90 U.S. dollar per day 2011PPP, the country’s Lower Middle Income Class Poverty Line (ICPL) of 3.20 U.S. dollars per day, and the country’s Middle ICPL of 5.50 U.S. dollars equally confirm this trend (Dougherty & Valli, 2016). These poverty levels have been associated with the country’s yearly economic growth above 6% for years. The country’s official poverty rate as at 2017 stood at 3.1% of its rural population (Naseem, 2017). The country’s economic growth has equally resulted in mutual affluence: the average consumption growth, between 2013 and 2015, of the country’s bottom 40% of the population has been 1.7% points above the average consumption growth of the country’s total population (Lin & Zhou, 2011).

In addition, there is proof of declining income inequality in China. Ivanovitch (2018) notes a fall in income inequality according to the Gini index and researchers, dropping from 4.91 to 46.2 between 2008 and 2015. The figures below show the trends regarding China’s poverty levels and inequality trends.

Conversely, since 2000s, India has made significant progress in minimizing its absolute poverty. Between 2011/2012 and 2015 financial years, its poverty level fell to 13.4% from 21.6% at the IPL, continuing the former pattern and trend of strong and significant reduction in the country’s poverty (Naseem, 2017). Backed by a strong economic development and growth, above 90 million Indian inhabitants escaped the IPL and bettered their living standards within the period.  Notwithstanding this success, poverty is still widespread in India. The recent approximations has it that in 2015, about 176 million Indians were living under extreme condition of poverty. Latest trends and patterns within the construction industry as well as rural wages imply that the country’s poverty eradication pace may somewhat have moderated. Benefits that have accrued to the country as a result of poverty eradication and growth have been irregular. Srinivasan (2006) states that India is facing the problem of rising poverty minimization’s responsiveness to development and growth. This would help scheduled tribes, women’s inclusion, and other excluded cohorts of people and human development index outcomes associated with education, nutrition, gender, and health where the nation continues ranking poorly. These findings are supported by the figures below.


During the 50s, China’s and India’s national economies were at par. The Indian economy within that same period registered superior performance in terms of gross national product (GNL) as well as PNL per capita (Srinivasan, 2006). However, after the launch of foreign investments as well as the reforms that were then promoted during the 70s, the Chinese economy registered immense progress and has since surpassed the Indian economy in all aspects, extraordinary outcomes that have been termed the “Chinese Miracle.” The development of manufacturing sector in China has changed China into the world’s factory and has led to the creation of an industrial substrate that can be sustained in the long term. Ivanovitch (2018) notes that China’s foreign investments in 2015 amounted to $1.781 trillion, whereas India’s was $ 297.1 billion.

Furthermore, Chinese foreign investments have maintained a steady and constant growth, valued at $1.1 trillion in 2015 and was $792 billion in 2014. Comparatively, India’s was $129 billion in 2014 and $137 billion in 2015. Chinese foreign business has sustained a high rate of growth, registering a positive balance of about $700 billion, while India has registered a negative business balance of $144 billion (Wright, 2012). Regarding PIL, if China has registered an exceptional development and growth in the last decade, just recently did it begin to slow, registering an average growth rate of 6.9% in the year 2015 (Naseem, 2017). Contrarily, India, with a 7.5% PIL in 2015, has outpaced China with respect to growth speed of their individual economy (Ivanovitch, 2018). Income per capita wise, China with a $14.300 per its citizen in the year 2015 entirely blew away India, during which period, they recorded an average of about $6.300 per person (Zadro, 2016).

India’s economic development and growth started at the time when it gained its independence in 1947 from Great Britain, and has sped up noticeably after political reforms that were inaugurated by Nehru. Additionally, India’s economic growth and development was orchestrated by active sector within the technological industry, having had a poor infrastructure along with a lack of trust in its manufacturing industry. India based its economic development and growth upon its service sectors (Wright, 2012). The proportion of its PIL that is occupied by the service industry within India is about 54%, greater than that of China by about 6%.

Lastly, both India and China are facing certain difficulties with regard to economic development. On the one hand, China is facing the challenge of minimizing the huge savings rate for households as well as promoting local consumption, increasing its work openings in industries with better remunerations along with promoting hiring of fresh graduates, minimizing corruption levels along with other economic malpractices and crime, minimizing ecological pollution, and reversing its population’s aging process. Similarly, India is faced with the challenge of lowering its poverty rate, curbing endemic corruption, eliminating discrimination and violence against children and women, implementing an extra effective and efficient supply system across the country’s borders, promoting intellectual property entitlements, improving its transport systems as well as infrastructure for agricultural purposes, creating more job openings in industries other than agriculture, controlling migration between its cities and countryside, and improving and reforming its scholastic system.



Dougherty, S. & Valli, V. (2016). Comparing China and India: an Introduction. The European Journal of Comparative Economics, 6 (1), 1-15.

Ivanovitch, M. (2018). China and India are trying to write a new page of the world economy. Retrieved from https://www.cnbc.com/2018/04/29/china-india-trying-to-write-a-new-page-of-world-economy–commentary.html on 18/11/2018.

Jacques, M. (2012). When China Rules the World. Penguin Books 2nd edition.

Lin, Y. & Zhou, W. (2011). BRICS’s Development Report. Social Sciences Academic Press.

Naseem, S. (2017). Economies of Two Asian Giants India and China: A Comparative Study. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 8(9), 42-48.

Srinivasan, T. (2006). China, India and the world economy. Economic and Political Weekly,


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