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     Healthcare policy and identify the impact economics ,political and legal/ethical issues had on the development of that policy.



Subject Law and governance Pages 2 Style APA


Comprehensive Addiction Act (CARA) of 2016

Comprehensive Addiction Act (CARA) of 2016 authorizes the channeling of federal grants to states so as to supplement the control and treatment of opioid abuse, overdose reversal, recovery, criminal justice reform, law enforcement, and prevention activities. It includes improved monitoring efforts of prescriptions, making opioid treatment programs more accessible to everyone, and training of care providers. CARA of 2016 was signed by President Obama in 2016. The Act authorized funding of more than $181 million per annum to fight the opioid epidemic. This budget must be appropriated every year (Gross & Gordon, 2019). Before, enactment of this Act, the opioid issues was considered a criminal issue and therefore, it would attract the attention of the law enforcement agencies and could be punishable under the criminal justice system laws and regulations (Gross & Gordon, 2019). Law and policy shapes the behaviors of industries and individuals. Decriminalizing the opioid addiction problem is a move that influences many addicts to come out and seek treatment (Teitelbaum & Wilensy, 2016). The Act was also enacted and passed as a Lock-in program to decrease wastage of benefit resources, as well as cases of abuse and fraud. It helped reduce the unsafe behaviors of opioid abuse and led to improved quality of care for beneficiaries who are classified as high risk, through tighter access and easier access to recommended prescriptions (Roberts, Gellad, & Skinner, 2016).

The rising rates of opioid addiction and misuse in the US was on the rise posing economic, ethical and legal challenges since more than 91 American were estimated to have been dying every day due to opioid overdose. This issue influenced a political action (Mody & Blackwood, 2019). The issue was emphasized even more when the White House, in October 2017, declared the opioid epidemic or opioid problem a national emergency. There was and still is a shared agreement across the political divide that the opioid epidemic required a political solution through policy solutions and increased funding (Mody & Blackwood, 2018). This led to increases funding to support the CARA of 2016 (Mody & Blackwood, 2018). In February 2018, the senators made some policy changes to the CARA of 2016. The changes facilitated increased budgetary allocation so as to better combat the epidemic in 2018/2019 fiscal year (Gross & Gordon, 2019).




Gross, J., & Gordon, D.B. (2019). The strengths and weaknesses of current US policy to address pain. AM J Public Health, 109(1), 66-72. DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2018.304746.

Mody, P.R., & Blackwood, K. (2018). 5 health care policy issues to follow in 2018. Arnold & Porter. Retrieved on May 25, 2019 from, https://www.arnoldporter.com/en/perspectives/publications/2018/01/5-health-care-policy-issues-to-follow-in-2018

Roberts, A.W., Gellad, W.F., & Skinner, A.C. (2016). Lock-in programs and the opioid epidemic: A call for evidence. Am J Public Health, 106(11), 1918-1919. DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2016.303404. 

Teitelbaum, J.B., & Wilensy, S.E. (2016). Essentials of health policy and law (Essential public health) (3rd ed.). New York: Jones & Bartlett Learning.







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