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    Consumer case study essay    


    1. Critically analyse individual, community, environmental and social factors that influence health beliefs and practices and strategies for promoting positive health behaviours.
      Evaluate and apply evidence-based models of health behaviour change, health education, self- management support, and partnerships in health care as they apply to promotion of health and wellness and rehabilitation of individuals and




Subject Essay Writing Pages 7 Style APA


Colorectal Cancer


Colorectal cancer also known as colon cancer, bowel cancer, or rectal cancer is any type of cancer that affects the rectum and the colon. According to the report by the American Cancer Society, about 1 in 23 women and 1 in 21 men in the United States will one time develop colorectal cancer in their lifetime (Schreuders et al., 2017). In order to understand the colorectal cancer, its approaches to education and planning for self-management and discharge planning in order to reduce its effects on the victims, this paper relies on a case of John, a 62-year-old male diagnosed with colorectal cancer.

Discharge planning

As stated by Arnold et al. (2017), discharge planning is the process of getting one ready to leave the hospital. Bibbins-Domingo et al., (2016) says that it does not mean that one is completely well but the health professionals believe that there is no need of being in the hospital since the condition is better and certain issues can be managed at home or in nursing homes. One of the most important discharge planning process of colorectal cancer is follow up. A follow-up care plan includes regular physical examinations and other medical tests to monitor the recovery during coming months and years.  The follow up relies majorly on the physical and medical examination as well as signs and symptoms of the disease.  In John’s case, a few examinations follow up have to be taken in every three to six months. The first one is a carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) test. This blood test detects the level of CEA protein in the blood. It tells the extent of spread and the amount of cancer cells in the body. The second follow up test for John is Computed tomography (CT) scan. CT scans of the abdomen and chest are conducted each year for three years. If there is likelihood of high reoccurrence then the doctor can recommend the CT more often to check any incidence of growth of cancer cells again. Another important test for follow up is colonoscopy. This test permits the doctor to look for second cancers or polyps in the entire colon and rectum and with a colonoscopy.

Other follow procedure also depends on the signs and symptoms of the disease. Some of the signs and symptoms of the recurrent colorectal which should be monitored on a daily basis include tiredness, pain in the belly, diarrhea, constipation, rapid weight loss, trouble breathing, and back pain. According to the study conducted by Calon et al. (2015), these symptoms may come and go hence once observed, it is important for John to seek medical attention from the doctor who can then perform examinations to confirm the presence and spread of the cancer cells again. On the same note, as a matter of ongoing care, it is important for John to obtain clinical documents that show his progress throughout the treatment. It could include documents showing the amount of the cancer cells before the patient hospitalization up to the time he leaves the hospital.

Issues of Cancer Survivorship brings much-needed, expert guidance to the challenges of cancer care. For some men, their experience goes beyond the disease and its treatment. A study conducted by Church et al., (2016) reveals that cancer is one f the diseases that has got high levels of stigma hence  most people die from it not because of the disease but because of the stigma. In that regard, it is one of the health conditions that is associated with serious survival issues, which if not managed may negatively affect the progress of care after treatment.

The first survivorship issues that john is likely to experience is emotional one. It has been seen that the patients who get cured of colorectal cancer, often become distressed or anxious. This anxiety is commonly caused by the physical tolls that the patient’s body goes through after the completion of the procedures and the doubts that a patient may develop regarding various aspects. On the same note, the fact that cancer is one of the leading diseases in the United States and surrounded with serious stigmatization makes it hard for the patient to believe that he/she has recovered. In the end, the patient will continue to live in worry and emotional distress, which may interfere with his wellbeing and other processes such as medication. According to Corley et al. (2014) if not handled carefully, John may develop anxiety disorder. One the way of preventing psychological issues is patient education. Patient education is an important factor, which exposes the patient to certain information regarding cancer and how they may affect him. For example, letting the patient know that there are several people who have survived cancer makes the patient know that he will survive hence less worries.

Another survival issues that john is likely to face is physical. Col cancer is associated with certain back and abdominal pain which can subject the patient in agony especially when the cancer wants reoccur. As stated before some of the symptoms of this disease are pain and discomfort hence it obvious that with the time of treatment and care, John is likely to face such physical issues. On the same note, the diseases may require surgical procedures if by any case it reoccurs. This will also likely to put the patient under physical pain. One of the most recommended strategy of preventing pain is use of the recommended medication from health care professionals. A study conducted by Favoriti, et al., (2016) cancer drugs interact with most drugs hence it is important to use the appropriate drugs to manage pain during treatment and care period.

Social issues is another survivorship problem that john is likely to experience. According to Zhang et al. (2014), besides HIV/AIDs, cancer is among the diseases with high level of stigma. Most people believe that anybody who has cancer must die or has limited survival chances even if there health status has improved. In the end, some people may be afraid to associate with John and this might psychologically torture him. Van Cutsem et al. (2014) also reveals that patient with cancer needs support from all aspects that include friends and family members. However, close family members and friends who believe that with cancer one has just to die evidence it that after being diagnosed with cancer, some patient are disserted. One other best ways of preventing social issues is creation of awareness among family members and close friends. According to Matano et al., (2015), awareness and information regarding cancer is still scarce and it is the reason why some people do not want to associate with people affected. Creation of awareness informs of education will enlighten not only close friends and family members but also the community as a whole. In the end, stigmatization will reduce and patients who have been diagnosed with cancer can have companies hence good quality of life.

One of the most important health education that should be provided is awareness. According to the study conducted by creation of awareness has been one of the most important factor in diseases prevention within the communities. As added by Siegel et al. (2017), it more important I health condition that have been highly stigmatized such as HIV and cancer. In this particular case of John, awareness will solve several survivorship issues which the patient is likely to encounter. The hospital provides weekly sessions and engages in campaigns whenever possible in order to raise the awareness of the patients. Furthermore, it is highly recommended that patients contact their medical care providers as soon as they detect a problem or in case a doubt arises. Awareness about the disease is important as it can significantly increase the chances and survivorship of the patients. Additionally, in order to educate the patients, personal therapy sessions may be provided to them. 

Spiritual Domain of Health

Spiritual domain of health is an individual matter that involves beliefs and values which offer a purpose in one’s life. It would vital for the client to reconnoiter what he believes is his own sense of purpose and meaning. The fundamental or significant path to spiritual wellbeing involves affirmations, prayer, and meditation which support one’s connection to a higher belief or power system. Prayers and meditation would aid the patient develop or establish spiritual wellbeing. Having compassion, which is the ability for forgiveness, fulfillment, joy, love, and altruism, would aid the patient enjoy and relish his spiritual health. Considerably, religious morals, principles, beliefs, values, and faith would define the client spirituality. When the client gets to engage in the process of religious or spiritual wellbeing, then he would be able and willing to transcend himself to question the purpose and meaning in his life as well as the lives of other people.

Motivational Interviews

Motivational interview as an uncensored a client-centered counseling interpersonal orientation style which make plain via specific strategies and techniques. In this motivational interview would help the patient to work through his incongruity about behaviour change. The counselor ought to use encouraging, empathetic, and nonjudgmental tone and should create a supportive and non-confrontational environment where the patient would feel comfortable to express both the negative as well as positive aspects of his present behaviour. In motivational interview the patient should be able to do more of the psychological work, governed by the counselor, and the client should be encouraged to say more compared to the counselor. Motivational interview would help the patient think and verbally express his personal thoughts and feelings. It would help the client think how his present health behaviour might conflict with the health goals.




Arnold, M., Sierra, M. S., Laversanne, M., Soerjomataram, I., Jemal, A., & Bray, F. (2017). Global patterns and trends in colorectal cancer incidence and mortality. Gut66(4), 683-691.

Bibbins-Domingo, K., Grossman, D. C., Curry, S. J., Davidson, K. W., Epling, J. W., García, F. A., … & Kurth, A. E. (2016). Screening for colorectal cancer: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Jama315(23), 2564-2575.

Calon, A., Lonardo, E., Berenguer-Llergo, A., Espinet, E., Hernando-Momblona, X., Iglesias, M., … & Cortina, C. (2015). Stromal gene expression defines poor-prognosis subtypes in colorectal cancer. Nature genetics47(4), 320.

Church, T. R., Wandell, M., Lofton-Day, C., Mongin, S. J., Burger, M., Payne, S. R., … & Snover, D. (2014). Prospective evaluation of methylated SEPT9 in plasma for detection of asymptomatic colorectal cancer. Gut63(2), 317-325.

Corley, D. A., Jensen, C. D., Marks, A. R., Zhao, W. K., Lee, J. K., Doubeni, C. A., … & Quinn, V. P. (2014). Adenoma detection rate and risk of colorectal cancer and death. New england journal of medicine370(14), 1298-1306.

Favoriti, P., Carbone, G., Greco, M., Pirozzi, F., Pirozzi, R. E. M., & Corcione, F. (2016). Worldwide burden of colorectal cancer: a review. Updates in surgery68(1), 7-11.

Isella, C., Terrasi, A., Bellomo, S. E., Petti, C., Galatola, G., Muratore, A., … & Inghirami, G. (2015). Stromal contribution to the colorectal cancer transcriptome. Nature genetics47(4), 312.



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