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    Research Design


    Paper Details

    Please attached documents.


    1. Instructions


    1. Please write about this article: Davies, B., Griffiths, J., Liddiard, K., Lowe, K., & Stead, L. (2015). Changes in staff confidence and attributions for challenging behaviour after training in positive behavioural support within a forensic medium secure service. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 26(6), 847–861. doi: 10.1080/14789949.2015.1072574


    1. Research Questions and Hypotheses Checklist


    1. Overview of quantitative research methods transcript


Subject Psychology Pages 3 Style APA


Critique of Research Hypotheses

The effectiveness of research is dependent on the quality of its study questions and hypothesis. Researchers are therefore tasked with developing these two according to the purpose of the study. In addition, it is critical for a study to align theoretical knowledge, purpose statement, research questions, and hypothesis (Burkholder, Cox, & Crawford, 2016). The study by Davis et al. (2015) portrays quality hypotheses as reflected in the alignment with the problem, purpose, theory, and design.

The study by Davis et al. (2015) aimed at evaluating the potential benefits of PBS training among staff with regards to increasing reported confidence and modifying the causal attributions in the management of challenging behaviors. The study was centered on two hypotheses. The first one was that confidence would increase upon PBS staff training while the second one was that the attributions for the extrinsic causes of the challenging behavior would escalate and that reductions in internal causality, personal control, and stability attributions would be noticed. Evaluating these research hypotheses, their effectiveness are as reflected in their integration with the study problem, the logical extension of the research purpose, and alignment with the study design as suggested by Stangor (2014). With the purpose of the study being to evaluate the effectiveness of the PBS training among the staff in mitigating the challenging behaviors, the hypotheses suggest that the confidence levels of these staff would increase upon training and that the external causes of the challenging behaviors attributions would increase while a reduction in the stability, personal control, and internal causality attributions would be noticed. The similarity in the variables in the hypotheses and research purpose reflect on their integration. 

The research problem entailed limited studies of the impact of PBS training within the mental health secure services. In this regard, the study by Davis et al. (2015) focused on employing the PBS training in the forensic mental health realm and evaluating its effectiveness based on the research question. Evaluating the hypotheses as aligned with the research design, the participants were staff members in the mental health services field. While being invited to take part in the training, the causal attributions as mentioned in the hypothesis and research problem were evaluated. Some of the variables which were also stated in the research purpose and hypothesis included personal and external control and lack of causality. Considering the method of collecting data, questionnaires were used which had questions related to the research purpose and hypothesis. In addition, the PBS training conformed to the hypothesis and research purpose in relation to the specific elements addressed such as participants’ confidence. Essential to note is that this study was quantitative and evaluating the quality of the hypotheses, a predictive statement is provided which states, “confidence would increase after staff training in PBS.” (Davis et al., 2015, p. 4). The quality of the hypothesis is also reflected in their consistency with the purpose of the study. However, the hypothesis fails to specify the participants and the research site.

Davis et al. (2015) besides aligning the research hypotheses with the study problem and purpose as discussed above commence with a detailed description of the related concepts including the challenging behaviors within the NHS. These authors also identify frameworks and models that are used to manage the challenging behaviors such as Positive Behavioral Support (PBS). In addition, this study explains the key terms including confidence in relation to the challenging behavior. The research design which is quantitative measures the different variables using certified approaches that include Caudal Dimension Scale II and Challenging Behavior Attribution scales. To obtain effective results, the study evaluated the variables before and after the PBS training. Throughout the study including other sections such as results and discussion, they are evaluated according to the hypotheses and the research purpose.




Burkholder, G. J., Cox, K. A., & Crawford, L. M. (2016). The scholar-practitioners guide to research design. Baltimore, MD: Laureate Publishing. Chapter 4, “Quantitative Research Designs”

Davies, B., Griffiths, J., Liddiard, K., Lowe, K., & Stead, L. (2015). Changes in staff confidence and attributions for challenging behavior after training in positive behavioral support within a forensic medium secure service. The Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology26(6), 847-861.

Stangor, C. (2014). Research methods for the behavioral sciences. Nelson Education.


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