1.In what ways do the following concepts of development overlap and do not overlap with “development as freedom” or “expansion of capabilities”: ·Development as growth; ·Development as the fulfilment of basic needs; ·Improved governance, gender and civic f
1.In what ways do the following concepts of development overlap and do not overlap with “development as freedom” or “expansion of capabilities”:
- Development as growth;
- Development as the fulfilment of basic needs;
- Improved governance, gender and civic freedoms and environmental sustainability.
You can take a practical approach by using country experiences to illustrate your points, wherever possible, or you can take a more philosophical approach (or some combination of the two)
2.Choose one developing (or transition) country from the group below then:
(a)Broadly describe their experience in terms of changes in happiness measures from 2006 to 2016 (see the Appendix to Chapter 2 of World Happiness Report 2017: http://worldhappiness.report/ed/2017/);
(b)Determine to what extent social, political and economic changes during that period may help to explain those changes.
Paraguay Sri Lanka Thailand Sierra Leone
|Subject||Law and governance||Pages||4||Style||APA|
Development and Happiness Measures
Development as Freedom and Development as Growth
Development as freedom is critically viewed as the principal means of political, social and economic growth. Development as freedom ensures that barriers to opportunities and rights of the citizens are eliminated. The removal of these barriers defines growth in all aspects of human interactions. The intrinsic human freedom is considered the preeminent development objective since it ensures growth in our economic, social and political systems (Sen, 2014). Therefore, development as freedom and development as growth overlap in that it is through freedom that we can realize any growth in the aspects of our society. On the other hand, development as freedom and development as growth do not overlap due to an existing clear distinction between them. Growth majorly deals with increase in real national output while development as freedom means improvement in living standards and quality of life.
Development as Freedom and Development as the Fulfilment of Basic Needs
The two development concepts overlap in that they both aim at providing valuable opportunities for the social, mental and physical development of citizens within a given country. Secondly, it is through development as freedom that we can achieve development as fulfilment of basic needs. Studies show that freedoms guaranteed to citizens enable them to access basic needs such as level of literacy at any given point in time (Sen, 2014). However, these two terms do not overlap in that development as freedom is not satisfactory enough to provide improvement of basic needs satisfaction level.
Development as Freedom and Improved Governance, Gender and Civic Freedoms and Environmental Sustainability
Development as freedom overlap with improved governance, gender, civic freedoms and environmental sustainability since these form political, social and economic freedoms. The economic and political freedoms help reinforce one another. Similarly, social opportunities such as gender equality fosters the growth of political and economic initiatives. These existing linkages makes the terms overlap. Nevertheless, on the other hand, these terms may be seen not to overlap in the sense that, the political, economic and social freedoms are seen as active agents of change while development as freedom is seen as a passive recipient of benefits dispensed (Sen, 2014).
Changes in Thailand’s Happiness Measures from 2006 to 2016
Thailand is among the top twenty gainers of happiness since 2006. It showed an average ladder scores that increased with at least 0.581. This increase in happiness is tied to the increased wellbeing of the people of Thailand. The increased wellbeing has resulted from the country’s considerable economic growth over the past few years. These economic growths have resulted from cultural and social changes that have occurred at a rapid rate within the country.
Effects of Social, Political and Economic Changes in Thailand’s Happiness
Economic changes such as increased ownership of assets by the citizens in Thailand has positively affected people’s happiness. A popular saying used by the Thai people is that money is king and as such, it offers psychological security and opportunities for social participation. The increased economic growth in Thailand thus go hand in hand with improved social development. Therefore, increased social activities directly increase the level of happiness since it correlates with economic status. Since 2006, the country has had political instability as evidenced by numerous coups, development of new constitutions and civil unrest. This has negatively influenced the happiness level of Thai citizens. There is high likelihood that the country would be in top 10 as a gainer in happiness were it not for the political instability it experiences.
Sen, A. (2014). Development as freedom (1999). The globalization and development reader: Perspectives on development and global change, 525.
Correlation of social progress index with economic status