Diabetes and Drug Treatments
Diabetes is an endocrine system disorder that affects millions of children and adults (ADA, 2011). If left untreated, diabetic patients are at risk for several alterations including heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, neuropathy, and blindness. There are various methods for treating diabetes, many of which include some form of drug therapy. The type of diabetes as well as the patientâ€™s behavior factors will impact treatment recommendations. In this Assignment, you compare types of diabetes including drug treatments for type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes.
â€¢ Review this weekâ€™s media presentation on the endocrine system and diabetes, as well as Chapter 45 of the Arcangelo and Peterson text and the Peterson et al. article â€œPeterson, K., Silverstein, J., Kaufman, F., & Warren-Boulton, E. (2007). Management of type 2 diabetes in youth: An update. American Family Physician, 76(5), 658â€“664.â€
â€¢ Reflect on differences between types of diabetes including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes.
â€¢ Select one type of diabetes.
â€¢ Consider one type of drug used to treat the type of diabetes you selected including proper preparation and administration of this drug. Then, reflect on dietary considerations related to treatment.
â€¢ Think about the short-term and long-term impact of the diabetes you selected on patients including effects of drug treatments.
Write a 2- to 3- page paper that addresses the following:
â€¢ Explain the differences between types of diabetes including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes.
â€¢ Describe one type of drug used to treat the type of diabetes you selected including proper preparation and administration of this drug. Include dietary considerations related to treatment.
â€¢ Explain the short-term and long-term impact of this diabetes on patients including effects of drugs treatments.
Reminder: include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. Important Information for the Assignment
ïƒ˜ please minimize the use of abbreviations. If you use them, please state at least once, what it stood for.
ïƒ˜ Once again, do not use proprietary or trade names of the drugs, by itself. Use generic or drug names. Eg: it is metoprolol, not Toprol! Using trade or proprietary names is interpreted as you doing advertising for a drug company!
ïƒ˜ I would like to see more pharmacology than pathophysiology, herbal remedies or information on medical procedures such as cardio-version or CABG! As an example, if the discussion is on HIV and AIDS, please make sure that you discuss the DRUGS used in the management of the virus and the disease as a part of your assignment, even if the question directly does not ask for drug information.
ïƒ˜ Include pharmacodynamics (molecular mechanism of drugs mentioned), pharmacokinetics (absorption, distribution, metabolism & elimination) & pharmacogenetics (genetic pre-disposition to drug effects) in assignment. As an example, just mentioning that “tylenol” will be recommended in place of “motrin” is not advanced pharmacology! I need to see you describe how acetaminophen works and why acetaminophen could be of more benefit in a specific patient!
Diabetes and Drug Treatments
Diabetes is a metabolic disease that involves a high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period. High blood sugar symptoms include increased polydipsia, polyphagia, and frequent urination. In the long run, diabetes can cause many complications that include stroke, foot ulcers, chronic kidney failure, damage to the eyes and cardiovascular disease. The cause of diabetes is due to either the failure of the pancreas to produce enough insulin or failure of body cells to respond properly to the insulin produced (American Diabetes Association, 2010).
Types of Diabetes
Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes or juvenile occurs when beta cells in the pancreas are attacked by the body cells thus they are cannot produce insulin to take sugar out of the bloodstream. The body does not produce insulin or enough insulin as the body’s immune system that normally protects the body from infections by fighting bacteria, harmful substances and viruses have destroyed the cells that make insulin. The patients with type 1 diabetes need to take insulin injections as well as ensuring proper blood sugar levels that can be attained by eating a healthy diet and carrying out regular blood tests (Daneman, 2006). The type 1 diabetes treatment includes being physically active, taking injections of insulin, controlling the blood pressure, controlling cholesterol level and eating a healthy diet.
Type 2 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes starts with insulin resistance, a condition that occurs when liver cells, fat, and muscle do not use insulin to ensure the flow of glucose into the body’s cells to use for energy. Thus, the body requires more insulin to ensure that glucose enters the cells. To keep up with the demand the pancreas makes more insulin but over time, it does not make adequate insulin when blood sugar levels increase, like after meals. It affects persons at any age including children, and it develops most often in middle-aged and older people. Men whose testosterone levels are low and people who are overweight and inactive have a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. In this type of diabetes, there are no episodes of low blood sugar level. It can be prevented by ensuring a healthy lifestyle, regularly exercising, eating sensibly as well as maintaining a healthy weight (Dey and Attele, 2011).
Gestational diabetes may develop when a woman is pregnant because pregnant women make hormones that can result in insulin resistance. In their late pregnancies, women have insulin resistance and if the pancreas does not make enough insulin during the time of pregnancy they develop gestational diabetes. Overweight or gaining too much weight during pregnancy increases the likelihood of developing gestational diabetes. Gestational can be for a short period as can cease when a baby is born, but the babies born to mothers who developed gestational diabetes are more likely to develop type b2 diabetes or obesity (Boney et al., 2005).
Drugs used to treat type 1 diabetes
Insulin glulisine cartridges are a form of the hormone insulin, and it helps the patient’s body to use sugar properly as it lowers the glucose concentration in the blood that helps to treat type 1diabetes. Insulin glulisine works by replacing the insulin produced by the body and helps move the sugar from the blood to other body cells where it is used for energy as well as stopping the liver from producing more sugar. It is in a form of a liquid, and the patient is injected fifteen minutes before a meal or within twenty minutes after starting a meal. The patient may use the medicine in an insulin pump as directed by the doctor. The insulin glulisine cartridges should be colorless and clear. The patient should use the technique taught how to inject deep under the skin and not into a muscle or vein. The patient should eat a healthy diet and eat the same amounts of the same kind of food at the exact times each day. The special dietary instruction is because delaying or skipping meals may result in problems with patient’s blood sugar control (Dreyer et al., 2005). The patient should not drink alcohol since it may increase the risk of developing low or high blood sugar.
Effects of type 1 diabetes and its drugs treatments
In the short-term type 1 diabetes causes hypoglycemia that is low blood glucose. Hypoglycemia develops as a result of too much insulin, medications like aspirin that lowers the blood sugar level and alcohol as it hinders the liver from releasing glucose. The long-term complications may be damaged body tiny and large blood vessels as a result of uncontrolled blood sugar. Due to damaged blood vessels, there is no flow of blood to the other organs like nerves, eyes, and kidneys resulting to damaged nerves, loss of vision and release of too much protein due to kidney failure.
Insulin glulisine may result to changes in patients’ blood sugar and other side effects that include swelling, redness, weight loss, constipation, swelling of the feet and hands and a little indentation in the skin or skin thickening. Also, it may cause some serious effects where the patients experience the symptoms that include: wheezing, shortness of breath, dizziness, rash, sweating, blurred vision, muscle cramps or abnormal heartbeat.
In conclusion, it is important to ensure that the blood glucose level is stable and normal as possible. One can manage this by ensuring insulin treatment and eating a healthy and balanced diet as well as regularly checking one’s blood sugar levels to ensure that they are not too low or high. Since type 2 diabetes can be prevented it is essential to note that illness, drinking alcohol, stress, exercise and changes in hormones levels during monthly periods can affect the blood sugar levels. Also, the patients should follow the doctors’ prescriptions carefully to live a healthy life.
American Diabetes Association. (2010). Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes care, 33(Supplement 1), S62-S69.
Boney, C. M., Verma, A., Tucker, R., & Vohr, B. R. (2005). Metabolic syndrome in childhood: association with birth weight, maternal obesity, and gestational diabetes mellitus. Pediatrics, 115(3), e290-e296.
Daneman, D. (2006). Type 1 diabetes. The Lancet, 367(9513), 847-858.
Dey, L., & Attele, A. S. (2011). Type 2 diabetes. Traditional Chinese Medicine, 231.
Dreyer, M., Prager, R., Robinson, A., Busch, K., Ellis, G., Souhami, E., & Van Leendert, R. (2005). Efficacy and safety of insulin glulisine in patients with type 1 diabetes. Hormone and metabolic research= Hormon-und Stoffwechselforschung= Hormones et metabolisme, 37(11), 702-707.