Differences between the types of diabetes
Write an explanation of the differences between the types of diabetes, including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes. Describe one type of drug used to treat (type 1 diabetes) you selected, including proper preparation and administration of this drug. Be sure to include dietary considerations related to treatment.
Then, explain the short-term and long-term impact of this type of diabetes on patients. including effects of drug treatments. Be specific and provide examples.
Types of Diabetes
Diabetes is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. In 2018, it was estimated that 34.2 million (10.5% of the population) Americans had diabetes. About 1.6 million Americans are approximated to have type 1 diabetes mellitus (American Diabetes Association (ADA), 2019). The total cost of diagnosed diabetes in the U.S. was $327 billion in 2017. Besides, in the same year, diabetes was the seventh leading cause of death in the U.S. (ADA, 2019). This paper highlights types of diabetes with focus on management treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Apart from type 1diabetes mentioned above, other types include type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes, and juvenile diabetes. Type 1 diabetes develops as a result of β-cell destruction, which often results in absolute insulin deficiency. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by progressive defects in insulin secretion on the background of insulin resistance. Gestational diabetes mellitus is the type of diabetes that is diagnosed during the second or third trimester of pregnancy and it is not clearly overt diabetes (ADA, 2015). Juvenile-onset diabetes is an autoimmune-mediated destruction of pancreatic β-cells that manifests during childhood and adolescent stage. Children and adolescents with juvenile diabetes can present with fasting hyperglycemia and/or ketoacidosis (ADA, 2015).
Insulin lispro is rapid-acting human insulin and analog that is used to manage type 1 diabetes mellitus in pediatric and adult patients. It is often used as a snack or prandial boluses. It is characterized by quicker onset as well as shorter duration of action as opposed to regular insulin. In adults it is given as 2 to 4 subcutaneous injections at a dose of 0.5 to 1 unit.kg/day, within 15 minutes immediately or before a meal to avoid hypoglycemia. In children and adolescents, it is given at a dose of 0.7 to 1 unit/kg/day within 15 minutes before or after a meal to avoid hypoglycemia (Prescribers’ Digital Reference (PDR), 2020). Severe adverse reactions include anaphylactoid reactions and insulin shock. Moderate adverse reactions include hypoglycemia, cutaneous amyloidosis, hypotension, hypokalemia, wheezing, dyspnea, hyperinsulinemia, and peripheral edema. Mild adverse reactions include headache, rash, fever, injection site reaction, diarrhea, rhinitis, pharyngitis, weight gain, myalgia, insulin resistance, and urticaria (PDR, 2020).
In order to prevent long-term consequences such as cardiovascular disease and to promote good glycemic control, patients with type 1 diabetes should adhere to daily energy requirements including recommended quantities of macronutrients including fats, carbohydrates, and proteins. Besides, dietary fiber should be included in the daily dietary practices to improve treatment outcomes and reduce risk of complications (Mackey et al., 2018). Short-term complications of type 1 diabetes mellitus include increased risk of infections and hypoglycemia from management errors. Long-term complications include microvascular complications (for instance, nephropathy and retinopathy), macrovascular disease, and neuropathic complications (Khardori, 2020).
In conclusion, major types of diabetes include type 1diabetes, type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes, and juvenile diabetes. Basing on focus on type 1 diabetes mellitus, it is managed with insulin therapy. For optimal management of type 1 diabetes mellitus a dietary need be developed in accordance with daily dietary intake recommendations.
American Diabetes Association. (2015). 2. Classification and diagnosis of diabetes. Diabetes Care, 38(Suppl 1), S8-S16. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc15-S005
American Diabetes Association. (2019). Statistics about diabetes. http://diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/statistics/
Khardori, R. (Dec 24, 2020). Type 1 diabetes mellitus. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/117739-overview#a1
Mackey, E. R., O`Brecht, L., Holmes, C. S., Jacobs, M., & Streisand, R. (2018). Teens with type 1 diabetes: How does their nutrition measure up? Journal of Diabetes Research, 2018, Article ID 5094569. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/5094569
Prescribers’ Digital Reference. (2020). Insulin lispro – drug summary. https://pdr.net/drug-summary/Humalog-insulin-lispro-291