Discussion – Week 11
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Disorders of the Reproductive Systems
While the male and female reproductive systems are unique to each sex, they share a common function—reproduction. Disorders of this system range from delayed development to structural and functional abnormalities. Since many reproductive disorders not only result in physiological consequences but also psychological consequences such as embarrassment, guilt, or profound disappointment, patients are often hesitant to seek treatment. Advanced practice nurses need to educate patients on disorders and help relieve associated stigmas. During patient evaluations, patients must feel comfortable answering questions so that you, as a key health care provider, will be able to diagnose and recommend treatment options. As you begin this Discussion, consider reproductive disorders that you would commonly see in the clinical setting.
To prepare for this Discussion:
- Review Chapter 22 and Chapter 23 in the McPhee and Hammer text, as well as Chapter 32 in the Huether and McCance text.
- Select two disorders of the male and/or female reproductive systems that interest you. Consider the similarities and differences between the disorders.
- Select one of the following factors: genetics, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Think about how the factor you selected might impact the diagnosis of and treatment for the reproductive disorders.
By Day 3
Post a description of the two reproductive disorders you selected, including their similarities and differences. Then explain how the factor you selected might impact the diagnosis of treatment for the reproductive disorders
Disorders of the Reproductive Systems
Reproductive system disorders are the infections which affect the reproductive tract. Among the females, the reproductive infections can either occur in the lower reproductive tract including vulva, cervix, and vagina or at the upper reproductive tract consisting of the uterus, ovary, and fallopian tube. On the other hand, in males, these particular infections occur at the vas deferens, penis, urethra, and testicles. This paper explains two reproductive disorders both in females and males including Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and testicular torsion, give their differences as well as similarities. The paper also discusses their symptoms and treatments.
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) refers to the inflammation of the ovaries, fallopian tube, uterus, and cervix. It can also extend to the connective tissues which lie amid the broad par-metritis or ligaments. The females’ abdominal cavity has got a straight anatomical path principally from the outside surrounding through the female reproductive tract compared to a closed abdominal cavity in men. This direct anatomical path can allow pathogens to make their way via the uterus up the vagina, and transverse the womb tube that opens up into the abdominal cavities (Brunham, Gottlieb & Paavonen, 2015). It is important to note that inflammation of the peritoneum, as well as the lining of the abdominal cavities, result to abdominal pain which can lead to infertility. Remarkably, a gonorrheal infection is one of the potential causes of Pelvic inflammatory disease. According to Brunham, Gottlieb, and Paavonen, (2015), PID symptoms include malaise, low-grade fever, and lower abdominal pain. There are three types of PID including salpingo-oophoritis, cervicitis, and endometritis. Salpingo-oophoritis result to pelvic pain, increased virginal discharge as well as tachycardia. Cervicitis result to vulvovaginitis, sexual dysfunction, spontaneous abortion, pelvic discomfort as well as the edematous cervix. On the other hand, endometritis refers to the inflammation of the uterus which leads to necrosis and purulent or mucoopulerent vaginal discharge that oozes from the cervix. This condition can be treated through aggressive therapy with different antibiotics.
On the other hand, testicular torsion refers to when the spermatic cord which anchors the testis in the scrotum has been twisted. As a result, the blood supply is amputated to the nearby scrotum tissue as well as the testicles (Copus et al., 2016). Most men are prone to this particular condition due to the defect in the connective tissues within the scrotum. In some cases there may not be an apparent cause of this condition; however, this problem can take place after a scrotum injury which leads to swelling. The condition is common at the beginning of puberty as well as in older men. Notably, the symptoms include severe pain on one of the testicles, nausea, and swellings on one side of the scrotum. Other symptoms include blood in the semen, testicle lump, and testis pulled at a high position in the scrotum than normal. This disorder can be corrected through surgery and the surgery ought to be done as soon as possible, that is after detecting the symptoms.
Differences and Similarities
The differences between these two disorders are that Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is caused by pathogens while testicle torsion is caused by twisting of the scrotum. Secondly, PID results to virginal discharge whereas testicle torsion does not lead to any discharge. It is important to note that both disorders attack the connective tissue. In the same token, the conditions can result in infertility if not addressed immediately. Lastly, the disorders cause severe pain amid the patients.
How Behavior Impact the Diagnosis and Treatment of the Reproductive Disorders.
Behavior is one of the factors which can significantly affect the treatment and diagnosis of both Pelvic inflammatory disease and testicle torsion. Having more than one sex partner can influence the treatment of these conditions. Secondly, not disclosing full information regarding the conditions by the infected individuals can also result in improper treatment and diagnosis. Patients need to change their behaviors towards these critical conditions and give real information to the doctor for help.
Brunham, R. C., Gottlieb, S. L., & Paavonen, J. (2015). Pelvic inflammatory disease. New England Journal of Medicine, 372(21), 2039-2048. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMra1411426
Copus, C., Garg, T., Hutchison, S., Shipman, M., Tully, B., Sanchez, I., & Bowman, M. D. (2016). Identification Of A Clinicopathological Correlation Between Prevalence Of Testicular Torsion And Temperature In Adolescent Males Between Ten And Eighteen Years Of Age In The North Texas Climate http://digitalcommons.hsc.unt.edu/rad/RAD16/Other/33/