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  1.  Double burden for black women  


    An essay about double burden for black women  


Subject Essay Writing Pages 3 Style APA



The book Double Women and Everyday Racism by Jean and Feagin (1998) shows that there has been a sympathetic portrayal of the lives of black women as there have existed several accounts of racism and racial discrimination resistance. Black women have been left to the margins, becoming invisible to policymakers and stereotyped where they become a focus. The article Double Burden seeks to dismiss the claims of the pathological and stigmatized representation of black womanhood. The article uses data from interviews and focuses groups on bringing out a clear picture of the everyday racism faced by African American women and their resilience in establishing families within such hostile environments.The book further explores the experiences of black women in workplace relations. Workplace relations with black women focus on supervising white employees as they do not acknowledge black women’s knowledge.

The book The Double Burden of Racial Discrimination in Day-life Moments: increases in Negative Emotions and Depletion of Psychological Resources Among Emerging Adult African AmericanCultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychologyby Joseph et al. (2020)explains the impacts of double burden of racial discrimination in daily life of African American population living in the United States. Some of the negative effects emerging from adult African Americans resulting from racial discrimination are negative emotions and depletion of psychological resources. The book further talks about how African American citizens in the United States experience racial discrimination disproportionately compared to other racial and ethnic groups.

In the article Hello Name Is Josie Duffy provides the disparity that has been existing about the attention given to racially abused men and racially abused women. According to the testimonies, while black women are racially abused more than black men, the media and the society do not give attention to women who are abused. According to Duffy black women and girls have been disproportionately represented and subjected to police violence. The article adds that while several actions have been employed to curb such racial discrimination, most of them are specifically meant to look into cases of black men who have been abused.


Jean and Joe (1998) emphasize on the experiences of black women with regards to racism and discrimination. Black women have always been left behind when it comes to making policies as their views and contributions have often been misinterpreted and stereotyped. The book tries to go past victimology of antiblack racism and depict the urgent need of African American women as they strive to seek survival for themselves and their families (Jean & Joe, 1998).

African American population in the United States experience a disproportionate level compared to other racial and ethnic groups. The rate at which the African American population is exposed to discrimination has a higher chance of resulting in erosion of their mental health. According to laboratory reports and research reports, there is a relationship between racial discrimination and the African American population’s psychological wellbeing in the United States. According to Joseph et al. (2020), a conditioned scale on recent discrimination shows a strong association of discrimination to negative psychological wellbeing.

Duffy (2016) states that there has been disproportioning of black women and girls as they are key subject to police brutality and violence. To counteracts this, there has been movements formed in the united states to help provide voice for African American women. For instance Black Women’s Blueprint was formed to advocate sexual assault of black women of all ages, backgrounds and sexuality (Duffy, 2016).


“Black women and girls are 12 times more likely than girls of other race to be suspended from school; black women are three times more likely than white women to be incarcerated. Black women and girls are also disproportionately subjected to police violence, accounting for 20 percent of the unarmed people killed by police despite being just 7 percent of the population” (Duffy, 2016 p.103).

“Racial discrimination is experienced disproportionately by African American compared to other racial and ethnic groups in the united states. Greater experiences of interpersonal discrimination and perceived unfair treatment in social interactions due to one’s membership in a group” (Joseph et al., 2020, p.2).

Jean and Feagin demonstrates that “accounts of racism and resistance to racial discrimination often present the life experiences of black men as the norm, while feminist writings on women’s oppression frequently emphasize white female experiences. Black women are therefore left to the margins and become invisible to policymakers and theorists alike”(1998, p.900).



Duffy, J. (2016). The racial justice movement has made household namesof many Black men and boys who were victimized by thesystem; however, it has been slow to include women and girls who face equally horrible fates as a result of institu-tionalized racism. Here are their stories.

Joseph, N. T., Peterson, L. M., Gordon, H., &Kamarck, T. W. (2020, April 9). The Double Burden of Racial Discrimination in Daily-Life Moments: Increases in Negative Emotions and Depletion of Psychosocial Resources Among Emerging Adult African Americans. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. Advance online publication. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/cdp0000337.

Yanick St. Jean and Joe R. Feagin. Double Burden (1998). Black Women and Everyday Racism.

Armonk, N.Y., and London: M. E. Sharpe, (ISBN 1-56324-944-8).














Appendix A:

Communication Plan for an Inpatient Unit to Evaluate the Impact of Transformational Leadership Style Compared to Other Leader Styles such as Bureaucratic and Laissez-Faire Leadership in Nurse Engagement, Retention, and Team Member Satisfaction Over the Course of One Year

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