How does differentiated instruction help EALD learners?
- How does differentiated instruction help EALD learners?
One of the most obvious advantages of differentiating instruction is that it allows each EALD student to be reached at their own pace, improving their likelihood of succeeding (DuBord& Kimball, 2016). When the material is differentiated, each student works at his or her own pace. EALD Learners above grade standard are not bored or disconnected by skills they have already learned. They will continue to learn new and more complex material; the sky is the limit! Freckle’s algorithm detects when a student is ready to advance to the next stage and immediately assigns the appropriate challenge. Students that are performing below grade level do not simply slip further behind. They can rather continue to learn and evolve at their speed. With Freckle’s documents, teachers can see how each learner is doing in each skill and easily determine when assistance is necessary. Eventually, learners who are at grade level continue to receive personalized instruction rather than a one-size-fits-all textbook. Because teachers do not have to devote all of their time focused on learners below or above grade standard, students in the center will gain more teaching time with the instructor.
Students learn to respect their unique interests and skills. Students can discuss subjects that concern them in a differentiated learning setting. For instance, each learner may choose their own Freckle ELA report to study and then present their findings to the class (Williams, 2019). Learners may choose from topics such as Bubble Gum, Harriet Tubman, and Glassblowing! Every one wants to select a subject that piques their interest in learning.
All are welcome to take part in events. Differentiated teaching encourages all students to relate to classroom events, from ELA community debates to science experiments. No student is denied learning experiences merely unless the reading task is above their literacy level.
- In what way(s) are Berry’s and/or Schumann’s acculturation theory important for EALD teachers?
The acculturalization model as made is essential for EALD teachers since they have become aware of cultural variations in students’ behavior when teaching a broad student population, whether they are English language learners or English speakers with a different cultural context. Knowing and distinguishing these cultural variations enables the instructor to provide a healthy atmosphere for all students. To guarantee the progress of every student in the classroom by teachers, it is critical to identify and appreciate these differences to incorporate culturally sensitive teaching and teaching approaches in the classroom.
Learning how to handle certain student behaviors is most likely the teacher’s most difficult task. Providing a safe environment for these student behaviors, on the other hand, will encourage teachers to adapt the required instructional strategies to help children succeed and improve in the classroom. Creating interaction with the learner is always the first move in getting to know them—understanding their classroom behavior and how it relates to their learning. As an example, Questioning can be related to personality characteristics. For example, some nervous students may not ask any questions. In certain cultures, though, students discover that asking the teacher questions implies that the instructor did not teach properly and thus is unpleasant. Furthermore, in some societies, asking questions is viewed as challenging the instructor, which is often prohibited and frowned upon.
The acculturation model assists EALD teachers in incorporating multicultural practices into the classroom such that foreign children consider their new home as a supportive nation built by immigrants (McGuire, 2018). Teachers are also able to integrate bilingual resources into their teaching and homework tasks. For example, Lectura Books has a wide selection of bilingual materials in English and Spanish suitable for EALD students of all ages. The multicultural books cover cultures and subjects to which many Latino learners can connect.
- Is Krashen’s SLA theory applicable in the classroom?
Understanding the second language is very important to teachers who are serving students from different races and cultures. According to Krashen’s SLA theory of second language acquisition, understanding the second language acquisition can impact the trainer’s ability to interact with students of diverse cultures and languages in one classroom or school. Expertise in second language acquisition is significant to teachers in learning institutions since it enables them to deliver the right content to learners and improves the learner’s abilities to understand the content being provided by teachers. The second language acquisition theory is of great value in learning institutions and places learning resources are inadequate leading to limited support to students in learning or understanding the native language. In a situation like this, only a teacher with diverse knowledge of the second language can be of great help. The second language and acquisition theory is of great importance because it gives a clear explanation of why language trainers provide a different response to training. The approach assists teachers in developing various learning tools that enable them to pass information to students with different understandings.
In a typical learning setup, there exist fast learners and slow learners, and this is no different with the learning of the second language, where some students will be quick to understand. At the same time, some will be slow in understanding the language. A good trainer should therefore train different students while considering their features and the ability to grasp knowledge. Studies indicate various parts of the trainees to identify other appropriate techniques related to multiple second language learners. Lai and Wei(2019) outlined the features by using the verbal reports to find the students’ mental processes as they train on different tasks related to languages. The second language learning ability depends on the mode of teaching used by the trainers to impart knowledge to the learners.
Trainers should have a better understanding of Krashen’s second language and apply the techniques in the learning rooms. Students’ experiences are very vital, and the teachers should engage them based on their understanding. Teachers should give learners reactions to their teaching methods a priority and allow the interactions to promote the knowledge of the second language. In addition to that, teachers should focus on the research to influence learners’ understanding of the second language.
- Why is Cummin’s theory on BICS/CALP important to EALD teachers
Cummin’s theory believes that if a learner has already learned a language, especially the native languages then they are equipped to learn the second language. The previous knowledge acts as a support system of their understanding of the basic concepts and skills that are related to a language hence the second language can theoretically become easy to learn as would a third or even fourth come even easier as they progress. This common underlying proficiency gives every learner the ability to learn new languages. Cummin’s theory is important on BICS/CALP to EALD teachers. One of the way through which its significant can be felt is categorizing students based on their understanding of certain concepts and skills of a particular language. Cummins quadrants model is designed for aiding thinking when designing learning for students. Cummins splits learning into four categories: Cognitively demanding (challenging), Cognitively undemanding (not challenging), High context (relates to learner’s experiences) and Abstract (concepts hard to relate to real experience. Basically, this gives teachers the idea on how to approach every student n based on their understanding. For example, cognitively demanding approach is quite different from the approach that is given to abstract category. It is important for teachers to learn more about all of this to find out exactly what knowledge their students already obtain and where their students still require assistance. It is important to understand some of the underlying theories to help build a foundation for instructional practice when teaching ELL students.
- How Formative and Summative Assessments Support Learning
Summative and formative assessments are two complementary and overlapping approaches of assessing learner progress. Whereas the primary objective includes establishing the weaknesses, strengths, and development of every learner, each assessment approach offers different actions and insights foe instructors. Summative assessments are periodically given to students with the aim of determining what they know as well as what they do not (Dolin et al., 2018). The objective of summative assessment includes evaluating pupil learning at the close of an instructional subject through comparing it against particular benchmark or standards. As such, summative assessments provide a crucial benchmark to check learners’ progress and educational progress. In the event that it identifies gaps across the curriculum between learning targets and learners’ knowledge, learning institutions may be forced to enhance the curriculum.
On the other hand, the goal of formative assessment includes monitoring pupil learning with the aim of providing continuous feedback which can be utilized by learners to enhance their learning and teachers to enhance their teaching(Dolin et al., 2018). When integrated into class practice, formative assessment offers the information required for adjusting both learning and teaching while they are occurring. In this regard, formative assessments inform both learners and educators about learner understanding at a given point when apt adjustments can be made. According Dolin et al.(2018), the adjustments play an important role in ensuring the learners attain targeted standard-based learning objectives within a set timeline. Formative assessments help the educators determine subsequent steps in the midst of the learning process because the instructions approach the summative assessment of pupil or student learning. They also enable the school to recognize areas where the learners are struggling and immediately provide solutions to the problems. Lastly, formative assessment help to build learners’ skills at self-assessment and peer-assessment (Dolin et al., 2018), and helps the students develop an array of effective learning strategies.
- How Criterion-Referenced and Norm-Referenced Assessments can Promote Learning
Criterion-referenced assessment assesses certain skills learners learn about in class. Educators use it to determine the specific concepts, including adding fractions or parts of speech, a student has learned in the classroom. Apart from provision of scores to measure progress, the results of the assessment provide specific information on sub-skills and skills the learners understand. It also offers information on skills the learners have not already mastered. According to Burkett (2018), both kinds of information are important in regard to determination of the type of specially designed instructions the learners need and whatever the instructions ought to cover. Teachers or instructors can use the criterion-referenced assessments to examine the teaching programs’ effectiveness with the aim of determining learners’ mastery of skills and concepts and to measure progress towards learners’ individualized education program objectives and goals(Burkett, 2018). The assessment can be used to disclose how learners are managing some of the already known disabilities or reveal if a learner has a learning disability that has not be identified.
On the other hand, norm-reference assessments are standardized tests which are tailored with the aim of comparing and ranking students in relation to one another (Burkett, 2018). They provide information on how an individual student’s performance on an assessment compares to other learners in the reference group. The educators can use norm-reference assessments to analyze students’ scores to learn about their performance. Through looking at the normed data, a teacher or instructor is able to see how well his or her learners are competing on different levels, including national(Burkett, 2018). This can provide the teacher with valuable insight in regard to how he or she is performing in comparison to peers.
Burkett, T. (2018).Norm-referenced Testing and Criterion-Referenced Testing.The TESOL Encyclopedia of English Language Teaching, 1-5
Deng, F., & Zou, Q. (2016). A study on whether the adults’ second language acquisition is easy or not-from the perspective of children’s native language acquisition. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 6(4), 776.
Dolin, J., Black, P., Harlen, W., &Tiberghien, A. (2018).Exploring relations between formative and summative assessment. In Transforming assessment (pp. 53-80). Springer, Cham
DuBord, E., & Kimball, E. (2016). Cross-language community engagement: Assessing the strengths of heritage learners. Heritage Language Journal, 13(3), 298.
Lai, W., & Wei, L. (2019). A critical evaluation of Krashen’s monitor model. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 9(11), 1459-1464.
McGuire, A. (2018). Teachers’ Perspectives on Acculturation and Wellbeing for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Children from Refugee and Migrant Backgrounds (Doctoral dissertation).
Williams, J. (2019). Teachers Perceptions of Supporting Gifted Learners in General Education Classes.