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  1. Exercise Physiology    


    Define Exercise Physiology    


Subject Nursing Pages 10 Style APA


Exercise Physiology

Exercise physiology refers to the exploration of different body responses due to physical activity. These body responses likely to be experienced include changes in the rate of metabolism, the cell structure, and physical changes in different parts of the body such as lungs, heart, and muscles. This paper evaluates exercise in medicine and the prescription for aerobic and strength training in achieving health and performance.

  1. Difference between Work and Power

Work refers to the amount of energy required, whereas power refers to the proportion at which energy is used, transferred, or transformed. Mechanical work corresponds with metabolic work by using the efficiency variable to calculate the ratio of mechanical work to metabolic work. For instance, using the efficiency of the human muscle, calculations on mechanical work can be determined, and then that information is used to estimate metabolic work.

Muscular power, on the other hand, is determined by force and velocity. The power output of the muscle will be high if there is a high force in relation to a low velocity. On the other hand, a high velocity with respect to a low force will observe a low muscle power. Therefore, to achieve maximum muscle power, there has to be an average proportion of force and velocity.

Muscles also discharge mechanical work when their contractions produce tension force which acts on muscle insertions. Examples of muscle contractions include eccentric, isometric, and concentric contractions.

Eccentric Contraction

This refers to a situation whereby the force produced by the muscle is insufficient to support the external load, thus causing the lengthening of the muscle fibers.

Isometric Contraction

Isometric contraction is whereby muscles remain in uniform length. There is no shift by the muscle’s insertions due to absence in any amount of work being performed.

Concentric Contraction

This is whereby muscles produce sufficient force to overcome a given resistance. An application of work and power can be demonstrated by a volleyball player whose primary acceleration to increase his propulsion is supported by the compression and extension of the muscle fibers. The amount of force required during a jump and the distance he/she intends to be propelled entirely depends on the work done by a muscle during contraction. Force applied by a muscle contraction determines the speed of the contraction; thus, slower contractions lead to a considerable force.

  1. Appropriate circumstances to conduct cardiovascular endurance tests on an athlete.

Cardiovascular endurance measures how fit an individual is by determining their bodies’ intensity level can go without getting tired. Although cardiovascular diseases cause most athletes’ deaths, other causes of sudden death that must be determined in pre-participation screening include heat stroke and drug abuse. Recreational drugs such as cocaine and amphetamine often lead to non-cardiogenic edema and enlarged cardiomyopathy. These destructive cardiovascular changes, in return, make individuals susceptible to myocardial electrical instability and tachyarrhythmias.

Heatstroke is a condition whereby an individual feels a high temperature above 40 degrees alongside an abnormal mental status such as confusion or seizure. Heatstroke patients are likely to suffer from heart failure, atrial fibrillation, cardiovascular diseases, and ischemic heart disease. Heart failure mainly occurs in heatstroke patients as a result of delayed metabolism, which then causes atherosclerosis.

  1. Oxygen consumption values for different age groups, sexes, and athletes

Age, gender, and difference in training are some of the factors that influence oxygen consumption. Oxygen consumption reduces with age, and it is estimated that it is high at age 20 and declines by about 30% by 65. About gender, males are estimated to have a more excellent value in oxygen consumption than females. The average male can achieve a maximal oxygen uptake of nearly 35 to 40 mL/kg/min, whereas the average female will have an uptake of between 27 and 30 mL/kg/min (Quinn, 2020).

Overall fitness can also be measured in athletes from different sports by investigating the amount of oxygen consumed in activity or training. In sports requiring high amounts of energy, such as distance running, athletes are likely to record a high maximal oxygen uptake, making them capable of performing more work. For example, elite male runners such as Bjorn Daehlie have achieved a VO2 max of 96ml/kg/min (Quinn, 2020). Indoor sports such as badminton will have athletes recording a low maximal oxygen uptake of about 50.20 ml/min/kg (Sathya & Parekh, 2018).

  1. Two methods of Blood Doping

Blood doping refers to the boost in the number of red blood cells in the bloodstream to increase the circulation of oxygen from the lungs to the muscles, thus enhancing an athlete’s endurance. Methods of blood doping used by athletes include Erythropoietin (EPO) and Blood transfusion.




Erythropoietin (EPO)

EPO is a peptide hormone produced in the kidneys. Erythropoietin is meant to act on the bone marrow to stimulate the production of red blood cells. By using EPO, athletes aim to enhance their aerobic capacity by increasing the concentration of red blood cells.

Blood Transfusion

Athletes can either use homologous or autologous transfusions sometime before the competition. Homologous refers to using compatible blood types from a donor, and autologous is usually done with the recipient’s blood. This transfusion thus helps boost the concentration of red blood cells in the athlete (Kraemer, Fleck & Deschenes 2011).

  1. Why Growth Hormone is so popular with athletes

The Growth Hormone is popular among athletes due to its muscle-building properties, its capability to reduce fat mass, and the ability to increase the total body water. Its usage is preferable to athletes due to its efficiency and the difficulties in detecting it. However, growth hormone has been shown to have implications by favoring the anaerobic over the aerobic energy system, which in turn affects performance. Suppression of the aerobic energy system is responsible for lack of muscle strength, power, and high oxygen consumption rate. Therefore, growth hormone is beneficial in sprint events that require a short period and not a physical performance that requires strength and endurance.

In combination with other doping agents, growth hormone doses are taken by athletes in approximately 3m/g to 8m/g a day for 3 to 4 days a week. These doses are estimated to be an average of 1-2mg of growth hormone taken per day, about 2-3 times the level of GH secreted by the pituitary gland (Ho, 2019).

However, excessive and long-term growth hormone usage is said to cause abnormalities in the pituitary gland, thus leading to an immoderate production of the growth hormone, a situation known as acromegaly. Acromegalic patients are usually susceptible to hypertension and diabetes mellitus, which can often lead to an early death from cardiovascular diseases. Heart diseases are likely to be experienced due to excessive enlargement of internal body organs, including the heart muscle.

            A high dosage of the growth hormone can also lead to impotence or menstrual irregularities. However, some of these side effects are usually reversible when the user decides to withdraw from the drug.

  1. How creatine works to enhance Power and Strength performance.

Creatine is a supplement mainly used to gain muscle mass, power, and strength. In order for power and strength to be achieved, creatine has to enhance energy production in the body. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the primary form of energy stored in body cells and charge the rate of metabolism and muscle function. During an activity, the body produces ATP to match the given demands of the exercise; hence in situations whereby an individual engages in intense exercises, the body cannot produce sufficient ATP per second to match the demand; this usually leads to fatigue.

Creatine supplements work by storing phosphocreatine in the body, which is then responsible for ATP production during periods of intense activity. Phosphocreatine acts as high-energy reserves in the skeleton muscle. Creatine, therefore, slows fatigue by producing an extra amount of energy in the muscles during an exercise hence increasing strength and power.

There have been various misconceptions about the adverse effects of creatin on health. Some people claim that usage of creatin leads to muscle cramps, weight gain, kidney stones, and even damages to the liver. However, despite all the opposing views, creatin was regarded as being extremely safe and one of the best available sports supplements by the International Society of Sports Nutrition. Besides, leading researchers involved in the study of creatine for several decades also recommended it as one of the safest supplements available. In conclusion, chlorine intake is indeed safe, and this is supported by the lack of evidence that shows creatin has adverse effects on human health.

  1. How Safe is it for pregnant women to exercise?

It is indeed safe for pregnant women to have moderate-intensity exercises during their pregnancy period. Pregnant women who exercise regularly are likely to have more energy, lessened back pains, good body shape, reduced incidences of preterm birth, and hypertensive disorders. However, before taking on a particular exercise, certain precautions have to be adhered to. Such precautions include drinking plenty of water before, during, and after, wearing supportive clothing such as a belly band, and avoiding certain positions such as lying flat on the back for too long.

An expectant mother should always consult with his doctor before deciding on the appropriate choice of exercises. However, cardiovascular exercises such as jogging, swimming, stationary cycling, and walking should be highly regarded during pregnancy.

  1. Should children participate in Strength training?

Yes, children should be allowed to take part in strength training provided they have supervised training sessions and are well guided by a professional instructor who provides safety training guidelines. Lack of proper guidance often leads to misuse of equipment, unfit weight lifting, and unsuitable techniques, thus leading to injuries such as back injuries and epiphyseal fractures.

The appropriate age for a child to start participating in a strength training program is usually about 7 or 8 years when he/she has physical and social maturity and can follow instructions. However, before a child is enrolled for a strength training program, he must have a preparticipation physical exam by a medical practitioner to determine if he has any underlying medical conditions.

Strength training has proven to have numerous benefits in the growth and development of children. Such benefits include strengthened bones, healthy weight, and well-maintained cholesterol levels.

  1. Should people with High blood pressure exercise? How can it help or pose threats?

Yes, People with high blood pressure should exercise at least five times a week for 30 minutes a day. However, before engaging in any exercise, they should employ safety measures such as warming up before an exercise to avoid injuries or opting for more moderate physical activities such as swimming. Rigorous exercises conducted over a short period, such as sprinting, should be avoided. These Intensive exercises can make hypertensive individuals feel nausea, pain, or fatigue.

Exercises help manage blood pressure as it reduces tension in the blood vessels thus allowing an easy blood flow. Also, it leads to a reduction in the risk of getting stroke and heart diseases. For individuals who might not be comfortable doing physical activities, changing their daily routine can make a difference. For example, one can opt to take the stairs instead of a lift or walk instead of taking a bus. 

  1. How to adjust exercise protocols for a person with Type I diabetes.

Exercise is vital for a person with diabetes as it can enhance their health and well-being through improving their overall fitness, checking their weight, and bettering their blood sugar levels. However, a diabetes patient faces several hindrances for them to achieve the required amount of exercise. These challenges include fear of attaining low blood sugar levels, loss of glycemic control, and having insufficient knowledge about exercise management. Therefore, adjustments in exercise protocols concerning glucose targets, insulin, and nutritional adjustments have to be incorporated to ensure efficient exercise management.

Hypoglycemia usually results when blood glucose falls too low as a result of physical activities. To prevent the occurrence of hypoglycemia and reduce the effects of physical activity on blood glucose level, one would need to; check the patients’ blood glucose level before, during, and after physical activity; give out excessive amounts of carbohydrates such as Gatorade before an occurrence of activity, and conduct regular checks of blood sugar levels after activity for any needs in the adjustments of insulin.

Before an activity, high blood sugar levels also need to be checked by testing the patient’s urine for ketones. The presence of ketones is a clear indication of a lack of insulin in the body to control blood sugars. Therefore, in an attempt to lower the patient’s blood sugars, one will need to; increase their fiber intake because fiber leads to a slow rate in the digestion of carb and sugar absorption, leading to a rise in blood sugar levels. Drinking water and staying hydrated is also helpful in lowering blood sugars since the kidneys flush out the excess sugar through urine.



Ho, K. K. (2019). The promise of growth hormone in sport: doped or dupedArchives of endocrinology and metabolism63(6), 576-581.

Kraemer, W. J., Fleck, S. J., & Deschenes, M. R. (2011). Exercise physiology: integrating theory and application. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Quinn, E. (2020). VO2 Max Testing in Athletes. Very well fit. Retrieved from >https://www.verywellfit.com/what-is-vo2-max-3120097<.

Sathya, P., & Parekh, R. N. (2018). Association between agility and VO2max in badminton and tennis playerInternational Journal of Health Science and Research8(6), 87-91.













Appendix A:

Communication Plan for an Inpatient Unit to Evaluate the Impact of Transformational Leadership Style Compared to Other Leader Styles such as Bureaucratic and Laissez-Faire Leadership in Nurse Engagement, Retention, and Team Member Satisfaction Over the Course of One Year

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