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    Concussion due to blows to head in sports can have profound and lasting effects. Write a 750 word paper that includes the following:


    • What is a concussion?
    • What causes it?
    • How does it affect the athlete both long and short-term?
    • What is being done to prevent it or limit the effects?
    • Finally, what do you believe should be done to protect athletes from the risks of concussion and its possible long-term effects?



Subject Nursing Pages 4 Style APA


Exercise Physiology: Concussion

Concussion is one of the sports injuries that occur to the head. According to Victoroff  & Bigler (2019), concussion is a brain injury resulting from a jolt in the head, bump, or a hit on the body that causes the head to move unusually fast in a sudden manner. The movement can cause the brain to twist in the skull resulting in chemical changes. Besides, the process of stretching may result in the damaging of brain cells. Primarily, concussion is a traumatic injury to the brain that alters an individual’s mental state and can lead to unconsciousness. Athletes, especially boxers and footballers, are mostly exposed to concussion. However, accidents or a fall causing injuries to the head can also result in the condition. The concussion symptoms include memory problems, confusion, dizziness, headache, sensitivity to light or noise, inability to balance appropriately, and drowsiness or feeling sluggish, among others.

Concussion is caused by a sudden jolting of the brain due to an unexpected impact on the head. The brain is a soft tissue that floats in spinal fluid and enclosed in a tough covering called the skull. According to research by Waltzman & Sarmiento (2019), a sudden hit in the skull causes the brain to move around in the head, resultingin bruising, injuries, and damage to the nerve systems. As such, the brain fails to function normally. The study identifies the risk factors for concussion such as falling headfast, playing contact sports, inadequate safety gear, and contact sports supervision. Other factors include motorcycle accidents and other accidents that result to injury in the head, taking a hit from a blunt object, and military service. While concussion is described as mild in medical practice, a serious conditionmay result in mental cases.

Concussion has serious long-term and short-term effects on athletes. McAllister & McCrea (2017) argues that the jolting of human brain results to shearing of axons leading to a disrupted neural network. The disruption affects cognitive function of the human brain. Nonetheless, concussion results in changes in human behavior and personality. For instance, athletes suffering from concussion experience depression, aggression, agitation, and impaired judgment. Research has indicated that the condition is linked to the suicidal nature of ex-military service members. The officers who had multiple head injuries showed a high likelihood of committing suicide. Nonetheless, athletes with concussion also experience sleep disturbance, disorder of smell and taste, concentration challenges, memory problems, and sensitivity to light and noise. A study by McAllister & McCrea (2017) suggests that the short-term impact of concussion include headache and confusion, loss of consciousness and feeling of fogginess in the brain. Other short-term effects include dizziness, delayed response to questions, ringing in the ears, fatigue, vomiting, and blurred vision.

Various measures are adapted to prevent occurrence of concussion. For instance, athletes are advised to play it safe. Headgear is the first defense line for athletes in high contact games such as football. Nonetheless, athletes should not take chances because they feel their headgear can protect them. Helmets may not stop concussion from happening, especially when the injury is from the inside. Thus, it is essential to learn the proper techniques and develop skills to avoid dangerous play. Players are advised to stop playing immediately they hit their head. Victoroff & Bigler (2019) argues that coaches should pull you off the game or the player can exit the pitch voluntarily. Thisallows the condition to be assessed to prevent further damages that can result to severe conditions. The helmet should fit in based on the sport’s requirement since this reduces the chances of injuries due to inappropriately worn helmets. Athletes should avoid using their heads as the primary point of contact. The head and the helmets are not weapons against the opponents. Players should observe anti-spearing rule, especially in football, that is meant to reduce cervical spine injuries. It is essential to strengthening the neck muscles to reduce the rate of occurrence of concussion. Studies reveal that individuals with strong neck muscles experience reduce rate of occurrence of concussion.

Athletes are the most exposed group to concussion. I think the use of headgears should also be introduced in other games such as soccer. According to Victoroff & Bigler (2019), Players use their heads to head the ball and direct collisions are common. There should be stricter rules in sports to protect players. Players with ill intentions should be red-carded from the game and punished according to the rules of the rules of the game. The sports fraternity should promote fare play and respect for opponents. The coaches and officials of individual teams should lead the way in implementing safety rules of the game. Athletes should undergo concussion education to learn about its causes, occurrence, and prevention strategies. When athletes are made to understand the long and short-term implication of concussion, they will play safe and according to the rules of the game.



McAllister, T., & McCrea, M. (2017). Long-term cognitive and neuropsychiatric consequences of repetitive concussion and head-impact exposure. Journal of athletic training52(3), 309-317.

Victoroff, J., & Bigler, E. D. (Eds.). (2019). Concussion and traumatic encephalopathy: causes, diagnosis and management. Cambridge University Press.

Waltzman, D., & Sarmiento, K. (2019). What the research says about concussion risk factors and prevention strategies for youth sports: a scoping review of six commonly played sportsJournal of safety research68, 157-172.





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