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    a) Please explain what justice means in healthcare
    b) Give a scenario from your field of practice, as to how a patient in your care, could be treated with justice.
    (6 marks)

    a) What does the acronym NICE stand for?
    b) What is the role of this organisation in healthcare?
    (6 marks)

    a) What is The Code (NMC, 2018)?
    b) What 4 areas does The Code (NMC, 2018) cover?
    c) Which professionals does The Code (NMC,2018) apply to?
    (6 marks)

    a) Respect and Dignity is one of the 6 core values in the NHS Constitution, what are the other 5
    b) Give an example of how you would treat a patient with respect and dignity
    (6 marks)

    a) How do you calculate a patient’s BMI? (All students)
    b) Describe why is a Red Tray used when supporting some patient’s nutritional needs?
    For CHILD STUDENTS ONLY -please explain how you would assess the nutritional requirements of children
    (6 marks)

    a) Please describe what is meant by the term, valid consent
    b) How can a nurse ensure that valid consent is obtained?
    (6 marks)

    a) What is a MSSU when we are undertaking urinalysis?
    b) Please describe, step by step, how you would advise a patient to obtain a MSSU sample for urinalysis.
    (6 marks)

    a) Please explain what Mindfulness is
    b) How can Mindfulness help with mental wellbeing? (6 marks)

    a) Explain what the SBAR tool is and why is it used.
    b) Give a brief scenario from your field of practice, to describe how this tool could be used, using the acronym.
    (6 marks)

    Please fully describe, step by step, how you would measure a patient’s blood pressure, from the initial contact with the patient until when the procedure is completed and documented (10 marks).

    a) How would you complete a respiratory assessment and what would you be observing?
    b) Please describe the process of assessing a patient’s respiratory rate, step by step, from initial patient contact to the completion of the procedure (10 marks)?

    a) Explain what ACVPU is and what the acronym stands for (for child branch student nurses only, please explain what AVPU means and what the abbreviation stands for).
    b) The patient is recorded as A, describe how the nurse would have made this assessment.
    (10 marks)

    a) What is Equality?
    b) What are the 9 protected characteristics defined under The Equality Act 2010?
    (6 marks)

    Explain what a peak flow test is and what does it measure? (5 marks)

    Indicators in the NHS Outcomes Framework are grouped around five domains, these set out the high-level national outcomes that the NHS should be aiming to improve. What are the 5 domains?
    (5 marks)




Subject Nursing Pages 10 Style APA


Foundations of Health and Wellbeing

Question #1

  1. In healthcare, justice implies fairness in every medical decisions made. The fairness should be on the decisions benefiting and burdening the patients, as well as, in the distribution of inadequate resources and new treatments.
  2. While going around my activities within the healthcare setting, I discovered that a patient suffering from an ovarian cyst left was unattended while others with mild conditions were being attended to. Essentially, the most critical treatment that this patient needed an operation to remove the cyst. However, after discussing this with the patient, she opposed the process. Moreover, other medical practitioners tended to have some preferential treatments towards other patients and none was willing to assist her. As a healthcare practitioner, I made the patient to understand that although she rejected the operation, she needs immediate attention that bars her from developing kidney failure. With justice in mind, I informed other healthcare practitioners the need to treat every patient fairly and equally without looking at their social, cultural, or conditions they suffer from. I exercised justice by ensuring that the patient undergoes because that was the only viable options.

Question #2

  1. NICE stands for National Institute for Health and Care Excellence.
  2. In healthcare, NICE offers evidence based guidelines and critical information to the public health. It also offers performance metrics and quality standards for professionals and other people offering and commissioning public health, as well as social care services. NICE also offers information to healthcare practitioners and managers across social and health care.

Question #3

  1. The Code (NMC, 2018) is a document detailing professional standards that midwives, nurses and nursing associates are supposed to uphold (Naidoo & Wills, 2016). It puts the interests of service users and patients first.
  2. The Code (NMC, 2018) is structured around four key pillars that including practice effectively, prioritize people, preserve safety and foster trust and professionalism.
  3. The Code (NMC, 2018) applies to many professionals including midwives, nurses, as well as, nursing associates.

Question #4

  1. The core values in the NHS constitution include respect and dignity, working collaboratively for patients, compassion, commitment to quality care, improving lives and everyone matters.
  2. To treat a patient with respect and dignity, I would first seek his or her consent before administering any treatment. I will not presume patient’s consent. Moreover, I will communicate information in a clear manner regarding the purpose, nature, risks, and benefits of treatment and care in a manner that the patient can understand and is able to make decisions regarding a given procedure.

Question #5

  1. The BMI of all students can be computed through a simple mathematics or by using a BMI calculator. Mathematically, it can be computed by dividing their weights by the results of their heights squared.
  2. In hospitals, especially wards, a red tray helps healthcare practitioners identify patients who require special or additional attention when taking meals or require meals with a modified texture. Using a red tray ensures that patients with nutritional needs have their meals served on a red tray in order to monitor and assist them wean taking meals. Assessing the nutritional requirements entails encouraging patients to take their food at meal times, assisting patients when they need it, accord patient sufficient time to take their meals and offer patients throughout the day.



Question #6

  1. Valid consent entails a person giving his or her permission before receiving any form of test, medical treatment or examination. For any consent to be regarded as valid, it has to be voluntary and informed and the individual consenting must have the ability to make the decision.
  2. To ensure that valid consent is obtained, nurses first verify that the patient had penned down the consent document in the presence of a witness or a legal representative who is old enough and legally competent to offer consent. Nurses also ensure that valid consent is obtained by proving the patient with detailed and complete information regarding the procedure or treatment, the possible risks such as complications and pain, the benefits of the treatment, persons going to carry out the planned procedure, as well as, other possible options to the treatment.

Question #7

  1. When undertaking urinalysis, mid-stream sample of urine (MSSU) refers to the middle part of one’s urine stream released in a single urination that is needed for testing.
  2. Before obtaining a MSSU sample for urinalysis, the patient should first wash his or her hand. If the patient is a male, he should wash his penis while if she is females, she should clean her genital. After that, the patient should start to urinate but he or she should not collect the first amount of urine that comes out. As a fact, the patient should gather a sample of urine mid-stream using a sterile screw top sterile container. After collecting the urine, the patient should close the container and wash his or her hands thoroughly. Once that is completed, the patient should mark the container with his or her name, year and date of birth, and then put the container with the urine sample into a sealed plastic bag and fix the request form already filled by the healthcare professional. The client should ensure that the exact time when the sample was collected is clearly indicated in the request form.

Question #8

  1. Mindfulness refers to a means of focusing on the present moment using approaches such as breathing, meditation and yoga. It entails being cognizant of your feelings and thoughts so that you can manage them.
  2. Mindfulness is a tool that can assist one manage his or her mental health and wellbeing. Studies have shown positive impacts of mindfulness on various aspects of whole person health such as the brain, mind, behavior and the body, as well as, the way a person relates with others. Secondly, mindfulness allows people to understand the stream of feelings and thoughts that they experience and to establish how they can become intertwined in that stream in ways that are not helpful. This according to Naidoo and Wills (2016) helps individuals stand back from their thoughts and begin to view their patterns.  Progressively, people can train themselves to notice when their thoughts are taking over and discover that their thoughts are just mental events that should not control them. Lastly, mindfulness enables people to detect signs of anxiety or stress earlier enough and assists them handle them better.

Question #9

  1. The SBAR (Situation-Background-Assessment-Recommendation) refers to an easy to remember, tangible approach critical for crafting any conversation, particularly important ones, requiring the immediate action and attention of clinician.
  2. In my clinical practice, SBAR can be used to organize communication regarding a patient through; identify that entails specifying who I am and who I am communicating with. Second entails situation that encompasses brief description of what is the issue of concern regarding the patient.  The background entails sharing critical information and brief patient’s medical history. The assessment encompasses offering adept professional review of what is happening while recommendation or request encompasses offering my professional suggestion for immediate action to be taken.

Question #10

  1. To measure a patient’s blood pressure, I would first request him or her to loosen any tight clothing or remove long sleeved cloth to enable access the upper arm. However, I will be keen not to use an arm that has medical challenges. Secondly, I will put the cuff around the upper arm and secure and connect the cuff tubing to the sphygmo- manometer. After that, I will rest the patient’s arm on a flat surface and put stethoscope over the brachial artery and check at the pulse. After that, I will inflate the cuff slowly and monitor when the pulse disappears. This indicates that cuff should not be inflated anymore. After that, I will begin deflating the cuff slowly while observing the level of mercury in the sphygmomanometer. I will then record the sphygmomanometer reading, especially when the pulse appears again. The next procedure entails deflating the cuff further until such a time until the time when pulse begins to disappear and document the reading as the diastolic pressure. This step will be followed by documenting the two measurements, first systolic and secondly diastolic. After that, I will inform the patient about his or her blood pressure reading. After informing the patient about his or her blood pressure reading, I will sterilize ear pieces and stethoscope drum using alcohol wipe. Other steps will include washing and drying my hands, and finally reporting considerably high or low reading to the clinically qualified physician responsible for the patient’s care.

Question #11

  1. To complete a respiratory assessment, I would first gain information about the patient’s history. I would then observe him or her for major respiratory clues. At this point, I will check at the respiratory rate. I would also look for abnormalities in the shape of the patient’s chest. Moreover, I would inquire about shortness of breath and observe for indications or signs of labored breathing. More importantly, I would check the patient’s blood pressure and pulse rate. On the same note, I would review oxygen saturation. In case the saturation rate is less than 90%, then there is high possibilities that the patient needs oxygen. However, for newborns and infants, I would observe flaring nostrils that could indicate breathing difficulties. Similarly, I would observe bulging or retraction of muscles between ribs that indicates that the patient experiences difficulty in getting sufficient air.
  2. To assess a patient’s respiratory rate, I would first count the number of complete breaths (the sequence of exhalation and inhalation in a single breath) that takes place within a 60 second duration. After practicing, I will count the number of complete breaths that occur within the first 30 seconds and multiply the result by two.

Question #12

  1. The AVPU refers to a system through which nurses and other physicians can measure and document a patient’s degree of consciousness. Essentially, the acronym AVPU stands for Alert, Vocal Command, and Pain Response, and Unresponsive.
  2. When the patient is recorded as A, the nurse would have made an assessment by casually discussing with the patient and answering real questions in time.

Question #13

  1. Equality entails ensuring that everyone gets a chance to make the most of their lives and talents. Naidoo and Wills (2016) maintained that no person should have inferior life opportunities due to the way they were born, their ethnicity, their belief, or whether they are disabled.
  2. The nine protected characteristics defined under the Equality Act 2010 include disability, age, pregnancy and maternity, gender reassignment, race, marriage and civil partnership, sex, and religion or belief.

Question #14

A peak flow test entails blowing as hard as one can into a peak flow meter; a small device held on hand. By measuring how rapid one is able to breathe out, a person’s peak flow score can show whether a person’s airways are narrowed. Therefore, a peak flow test measures whether an individual has asthma. The test also measures the severity of conditions for persons already diagnosed with asthma.

Question #15

             There are five domains of indicators in the NHS outcomes Framework. The first domain entails preventing people from premature death. The second domain entails improving quality of life for individuals suffering from long term conditions. The third domain entails assisting individuals to recover from incidents of ill health or following injury. On the other hand, the fourth domain entails ensuring that individuals have a positive experience of care. The last domain encompasses caring and treating people in a secure environment and safeguarding them from injuries that can be avoided.


Naidoo, J., & Wills, J. (2016). Foundations for Health Promotion-E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences.




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