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Extraneous Variables



Research is on Which reduces falls more in the elderly; pressure alarms or direct camera monitoring?

By Friday, April 8, 2016, write a 2–3-page paper addressing the sections below of the research proposal.


Extraneous Variables (and plan for how controlled).
Instruments: Description, validity, and reliability estimates, which have been performed (on a pre-established measure). Include plans for testing validity and reliability of generating your own instrument(s).
Description of the Intervention
Data Collection Procedures




Subject Research Methodology Pages 12 Style APA


Extraneous Variables
Pressure alarms are used to detect when a patient wants to exit from a bed or a chair. The bed is fitted with pressure sensitive detectors that send a signal when the person attempts to get from the bed. Movements that are not classified as attempts to exit the bed may be detected by the alarm causing false results. For instance, the patient may be rolling in the bed, and the alarm is activated due to the pressure change. Additionally, activities such as sitting while in bed can trigger the alarm (Capezuti et al., 2009). It is, therefore, difficult to differentiate between genuine exiting motions and false movement. An observer will be positioned next to the patient and will be recording the data to prevent such data from causing errors in the results. Cameras may also be mounted in the room to record the events such that during data analysis, the false positives, false negatives, true negatives and true positives can be factored in to determine effectiveness.
Direct camera monitoring can cause a person to alter their normal way of life (Woolrych et al., 2014). As a result, the results may be skewed. To prevent alteration of daily activities to alter the data, the position of the cameras will be unknown to the participants. Other extraneous variables include the risk factors that a patient will fall. Elderly patients with poor cognitive abilities face high risks of falling. As a result, the sample group will be from this group.
To control the sources of error and therefore increases reliability, the source of error must be known. Since the extraneous factors are known, the research can be carried out in a manner that minimizes the effects of these factors on the result. The camera uses an algorithm to detect differences in movement (Yang et al., 2016). Since there are risks of false positives, the other camera installed in the rooms will ensure that such data are noted.
The research does not allow for a randomized study, hence, the confounding variables will be as a result of differences between individuals such as gender. Such variables are likely to challenge the validity of the research. The analysis of the data will present different results on the effectiveness in genders as a secondary objective while utilizing existing research on the effect of gender on the prevalence of falls.
Description of Intervention
A camera is placed in a location where the subject will be carrying out his or her daily activities in this case sleeping. The cameras use sensors to recognize unusual events to determine a fall event life (Woolrych et al., 2014).. The system monitors the position and shape of the person to detect a fall. On the other hand, pressure alarms will be placed in beds and they are connected to an alarm system where pressure changes in the bed that exceeds the threshold triggers and alarm.
Data Collection Procedure
The data collection will involve a sample group of 30 patients with cognitive disabilities. Data collection will be for thirty days. The patients will be from a hospital that uses pressure alarms and cameras as prevention methods. Data collection for alarm pressure will include recording the response of the pressure device to attempted movement. Data will be classified as false positive, false negative, true negative and true positive. True positive is when the alarm was activated when the patient wanted to move from the bed or chair without assistance. The true negative is when the alarm was not activated, and the patient did not attempt to get up without help. On the other hand, false positive is when the patient was not trying to move without assistance but the alarm was activated while false negative was when the patient attempted to get up but the alarm was not activated. The camera records the fall incident on the computer from where the data will be retrieved (Woolrych et al., 2014).



Capezuti, E., Brush, B., Lane, S., Rabinowitz, H., & Secic, M. (2009). Bed-exit alarm effectiveness. Archives Of Gerontology And Geriatrics, 49(1), 27-31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2008.04.007
Woolrych, R., Zecevic, A., Sixsmith, A., Sims-Gould, J., Feldman, F., & Chaudhury, H. et al. (2014). Using Video Capture to Investigate the Causes of Falls in Long-Term Care. The Gerontologist, 55(3), 483-494. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/gnu053


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