Instructions as below;
Detailed instructions for Assessment Task 3: Critical Appraisal of a Research Article (1800 words) – 45% Description: This is an individual assignment which requires you to conduct a detailed and systematic critical appraisal of a research article. This critical appraisal will require you to examine a research article, evaluate it according to what you have learned in this unit, and consider how the results might inform practice. Instructions: Choose one of the following articles for this critique. •(Qualitative article). Porter, E. (199). ‘Getting up from here’: frail older women’s experiences after falling. Rehabilitation Nursing. 24(5) 201-206. http://ezproxy.acu.edu.au/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/218270979?Ope nUrlRefId=info:xri/sid:primo&accountid=8194 In particular, you are required to: 1. Present the assignment as a scholarly/academic essay with an introduction, body and conclusion. o The introduction should present the overall topic and purpose of the essay, how you will address it, and why it is important to be able to assess a research study. o The body will follow the research process set out in the article and will include all aspects of your appraisal and critique. o The conclusion should be a brief overview of the main points you have made in the body. No new information should be included. 2. During your appraisal: o consider both the strengths and weaknesses of the article, and o discuss how the recommendations from the article could be used in evidencebased clinical practice (EBP) 3. Students are strongly advised to use the Marking Guide and detailed instruction in LEO as a guide when writing the essay. 4. This essay should be approximately ± 10% of 1800 words, 1.5/double spaced, 1” margins, 12 point font, with a range of relevant scholarly references and using APA referencing. The format follows the research process Instructions: 1. This essay should be formatted as a scholarly paper. Be sure to begin with a short introductory section to present the overall topic and purpose of the essay, how you will address it, and why it is important to be able to assess a research study. 2. A guideline to assessing quantitative and qualitative articles will provide you with guiding questions to consider as you evaluate the article you have chosen. You can access the guidelines from the electronic learning system. It is important that you critically and systematically appraise all aspects of the chosen article. 3. Based on the article you appraised, consider both the strengths and weaknesses of the article, and discuss the recommendations that could be made in terms of implementing evidence-based clinical practice (EBP). 4. Students are strongly advised to use the Marking Guide as a guide when writing the essay. 5. This essay should be approximately ± 10% of 1800 words, 1.5/double spaced, 1” margins, 12 point font, with 15 scholarly references and using APA referencing. The format follows the research process HLSC122 ACADEMIC ESSAY – The above assessmenttask is best addressed using the following format: Introduction [Approx. 200 words] Your introduction should include a brief overview of the overall topic and the focus of your essay. Body [Approx. 1400 words] Use the quantitative or qualitative guideline to structure the paragraphs in the body of your essay. Ensure you critically appraise all aspects of the article, and discuss the clinical implications in relation to EBP. Conclusion [Approx. 200 words] The conclusion should give a briefsummary of the main points of the essay. Due date: Week 11: 23:59hrs Sunday 17/5/2015 Weighting: 45% Length and/or format: 1800 words Purpose: To demonstrate your achievement of each learning outcome shown below. Learning outcomes assessed: 1, 2, 4 and 6. How to submit: Submission is via the Turnitin Drop Box on the electronic learning system Return of assignment: Assignments along with comments will be returned via the Turnitin Drop Box on the electronic learning system not more than three weeks after the final submission date.
‘Getting Up From Here’: Frail Older Women’s Experiences after Falling
The article reports a research findings on the experiences of frail women after falling. Older women are often weak and likely to experience accidents either at home or in care settings associated to their frail conditions. There is need for care practitioners to understand the experience of older women falling as a basis for better response in such cases as well as to guide further preventive measures. There is limited literature and studies that have focused on the experiences of women falling especially in home setting. This paper proceeds to evaluate the various aspects of the research in addressing this issue in terms of the literature review, research methods, data analysis, and interpretation of the study findings. Research studies add knowledge that can be used to guide, improve, or change current clinical practice. As such, it is imperative to assess research studies to establish how effective they are in addressing the issue of focus (Cassell & Symon, 2011). This will help to establish if they qualify as points of reference to avoid using false knowledge that could cause clinical mistakes.
The title of a research is very important since it sets the direction and nature of the study. A good research topic should be well and clearly defined, easy to understand, and avoid ambiguity (Snelgrove, 2014). The researcher used a clear and easy to understand title. The title is stated in simple words that can be understood by readers not familiar with complex terminologies in the medical field. However, one weakness in the title is that it is not comprehensive enough. For instance, the researcher failed to state the nature and scope of the study in the title. As such, the title is left quite general and open for speculation.
The main purpose of an abstract is to provide an overview of the research in terms of the purpose, research methods adopted, research findings and analysis, and the conclusion (Sandelowski, M 2015). The abstract provides critical information such as the research methods, study findings, and the significance of the findings in practice.
From the analysis of the research in terms of the literature reviewed, methods used, analysis and interpretation of the study findings, and the way the researcher has strived to put the research into context, it is evident that he/she is knowledgeable in this field. He/she has portrayed substantial expertise skills and knowledge in the field.
An introduction in a research article provides readers with an overview of the research problem. It should provide readers with the research background, purpose, significance, rationale, and aims and objectives (Siddiqui & Fitzgerald, 2014). The researcher in the current study has given a short description of the research. The introduction highlights the crucial aspects of the study and why it is important. The researcher notes that the phenomenon of getting up for the older women after falling and the aspect of finding something they can use to help them get up are primarily directed towards maximizing the alternatives offered by their immediate environmental features at home. According to the researcher, understanding the variability that comes with the women’s experience of falling is a critical aspect of caregivers’ better interaction with them. It is also important in helping mitigate such problems in future or in developing preventive measures. The researcher also identifies a gap in current literature concerning the experiences of older persons falling. This justifies the need for this current descriptive phenomenological study that focused on older women in care settings who had experiences of falling at least once at home. The research is part of an ongoing longitudinal study of older women’s’ experiences if home care.
The researcher has effectively analysed the topic of focus in context to relevant theoretical frameworks. The literature review presents the different theoretical perspectives through which the area of study can be analysed and understood. The two perspectives adopted by the researcher in this study are the personal control and the affect outcomes models. According to the article, the act of personal control over an event is associated with competence to exhibit the behaviour related to the intended action. The researcher also sought to relate the models to existing literature. In one analysed study, oldest women exhibit higher levels of external control than other groups. Older persons are likely to focus on primary control behaviours to the external environment and manipulate it to suit their needs, and direct secondary control efforts to minimize losses or maintain primary control (Porter, 1999).
The researcher further notes that an exploratory research of the experiences of older women falling can be placed under the context of the external and secondary control. Nevertheless, the two concepts still present difficulties in application. This is because the concepts of primary control and secondary control are understood in terms of the aims of individual actor, which is difficult to configure.
However, despite these elements, the literature review can be faulted as being short considering the nature of the research. The research can be described as of a high magnitude and as such demands vast review of the current literature. Given the high magnitude of the study, the researcher should have embarked further deeper into analysis of the available literature in order to identify gaps as a basis to guide the current study. The researcher should have sought to put the current study into perspective through analysis and review of the previous studies in this subject area in terms of data collection techniques and tools, limitations, scope, and relevancy of the studies in order to garner a better understanding of the issue. This would help to illuminate the issue and guide the current study in being more relevant and focused.
The aim of the study was to analyse the field of frail women experience of falling and trying to get up at home alone. The study is of the descriptive phenomenological design through the interview method. The researcher has given a very detailed outline of the method used to collect data in this study. It involved nine older women of ages 83 to 96 years. Major activities in the research included exploring the variations of individual consciousness, reflections on experiences related to the area of focus, identifying relevant scientific evidence concerning personal control and competence, and analysing the experiences of respondents’ worlds by observation in their home contexts during interviews. The tools and techniques used in the study are effective in eliciting the type of information that the study intended to generate.
In analysis, a three-tiered taxonomy of intentions was created to describe the falling experience. This was helpful in address the complexity of the each respondents experience and to illustrate the variability of the intentions.
One noted weakness in the methodology of the study concerns the small number of respondents that was used for interviews. The small sample size limits the generalability of the study across the entire population of older women in the country (Zitomer & Goodwin, 2014).
The study substantially considered ethical issues. Once the eligible participants were selected, brochures about the project were sent to them and those willing to participate requested to mail pre-addressed postcards to project employees declaring their interest. Informed consent were acquired through an initial home interview. This implies that participation was based on informed consent and that participant was fully aware of actual intention of the study. Participants were informed of the potential applications to which the information they offered would be used.
Analysis and Interpretation
The findings of the study are well presented with the responses of the various respondents being analysed and linked back to the issue of study and the theoretical framework guiding the study. By and large, the research has presented the findings in a way that concurs with the research aim and purpose. For instance, one respondent notes that falling and not being able to get up is a terrible experience. Another lamented that those who have not experienced the feeling of falling and not being able to get up can be insensitive to older women who have fallen. This clear presentation of the findings is very helpful in terms of the way others understand and apply the information presented. The effective use of research tools and adherence to research standards and guidelines makes the research credible and reliable. Clear findings are helpful for readers seeking general knowledge, researchers seeking guidance for further research, as well as practitioners and policy makers seeking knowledge concerning the issue.
Discussion and Limitations
The research findings are well discussed in relation to the study aims. The author has also strived to link the findings of the study to relevant literature on the topic. The author gives a detailed discussion of the findings in terms of the research aims concerning the issue of older women falling experiences. This is done within the context of the existing theoretical models and literature. For instance, the researcher has linked the findings to the framework of the personal control theory and finds that the results of this study do not concur with those of Rodin’s theory of personal control. Contrastingly, the researcher stresses that the findings of this study concur with Gibson’s interpretation of control as perceiving, moving, and manipulating the environment. Gibson contends that older women are presented with certain alternatives by the personal environments of their home; control is thus exercised within the context of these alternatives. Likewise, in the current study, older women falling experience was wired in relation to the specific personal environment of the home (Porter, 1999).
To minimize the limitations of the research, respondents were allowed to fully express themselves through the interactive interview. The researcher used unstructured interview method to gain a deeper understanding of the issue. In these interviews, respondents were allowed time to full express their experiences without any particular interference. This ensured that respondents expressed their experiences fully and offered all the information they had in detail.
Conclusion and Recommendations
By and large, the researcher has clearly and logically presented the conclusion. The author has provided very robust guideline on the way the findings of this study can foster clinical practice. The researcher notes that further research is necessary of the experience of falling in different populations of the frail older persons as a basis for describing more variations of experiences in relation to their intentions.
From the discussion, it is evident that the study under focus was conducted in an objective manner. The researcher adhered to the various research standards and strategies including the format of the report, techniques and tools of data collection, analysis and interpretation, as well as conclusion and recommendation to guide clinical practice. The introduction effectively addressed key aspects including providing the background and significance of the study. The research was also structured within a relevant theoretical framework and literature. Finally, the analyses were done in a detailed and in line with the study aims. However, a number of weaknesses were identified including the small sample size that limits the generalability of the study.
Cassell, C, & Symon, G 2011, ‘Assessing ‘good’ qualitative research in the work psychology field: A narrative analysis’, Journal Of Occupational & Organizational Psychology, 84, 4, pp. 633-650
Porter, E. J. (1999). ‘Getting up from here’: frail older women’s experiences after falling. Rehabilitation Nursing: The Official Journal Of The Association Of Rehabilitation Nurses, 24(5), 201.
Sandelowski, M 2015, ‘A matter of taste: evaluating the quality of qualitative research’, Nursing Inquiry, 22, 2, pp. 86-94
Siddiqui, N, & Fitzgerald, J 2014, ‘Elaborated integration of qualitative and quantitative perspectives in mixed methods research: a profound enquiry into the nursing practice environment’, International Journal Of Multiple Research Approaches, 2, p. 137
Snelgrove, S. R. (2014). Conducting qualitative longitudinal research using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Nurse Researcher, 22(1), 20-25.
Zitomer, M, & Goodwin, D 2014, ‘Gauging the Quality of Qualitative Research in Adapted Physical Activity’, Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 31, 3, p. 193