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  1. How functional patterns help a nurse understand the current and past state of health for a patient.


    Discuss how functional patterns help a nurse understand the current and past state of health for a patient. Using a condition or disease associated with an elimination complexity, provide an example.    



Subject Nursing Pages 5 Style APA


Health History and Medical Information Analysis

Describe the clinical manifestations present in Mr. C

The condition demonstrated in the case reveals that Mr. C suffers from overweight. His blood pressure is 172/98mmHg which requires medical attention. The heart rate as well as respiratory rate is high. Mr. C suffers from apnea. On the same note, his cholesterol level is 250mg/dl while the normal level is 200mg/dl. The blood glucose of Mr. C is uncontrolled due to the fact that his fasting glucose displayed 146mg/dl

Describe the potential health risks for obesity that are of concern for Mr. C. 

Based on the subjective and objective information, there are several risk factors of concern that contribute to Mr. C’s condition. The first one is his lifestyle. He works in a catalog centre which presents with long hours of sitting hence less physical activities.  This must have been the cause of his weight gain of 100 pounds over the last 3 years. Additionally, the patient also has sleep apnea, which causes accumulation of fat around the neck, this leads to increase of weight hence obesity. Furthermore, the ideal HDL kevel for individuals is 50 , however in the case of Mr. C, it is 30 which is low and low level of HDL is associated with weigh gain hence risk of obesity. Another risk factor is diabetes which has been observed in the patient.

Discuss whether bariatric surgery is an appropriate intervention.

Bariatric surgery also known as weight-loss surgery is one of the last options for losing weight especially if several actions such as improving diet and daily exercise have failed. However, it can also be done after evaluation of certain health conditions such as heart disease and stroke, high blood pressure, sleep apnea, and diabetes. Based on subjective and objective information, the best way of solving Mr. C’s problems is bariatric surgery (Angrisani et al.,2017). Basically, the procedure is recommended for adults with a BMI of more than 35, and in this case the patient has a BMI of more than 40. In addition, he has high blood pressure as well as sleep apnea. It is in this context that the correct medical procedure for solving the patient’s problems is bariatric surgery.

Mr. C.’s functional health patterns

Mr. C’s weight gain is an indication that he does not engage in physical activities. From the occupational position at catalog telephone center, it implies that he sits most of the times, something that has led to his weight gain of up to 100 pounds over the last three years. Additionally, he has sleep apnea that has been caused by excessive weight gain as a result of reduced physical activity as well as poor diet. Although obesity is also genetic in nature, it is important to note that occupation lifestyle of Mr. C is the primary contributor to his weight gain. According to the study conducted by Angrisani et al (2017), physical activities assist in burning the excess weight in the body. High fat level in the body has contributed to high levels of cholesterol which has increased the patient’s respiratory rate hence increased heart rate. Further, constricted blood vessels as a result of high fat have led to high blood pressure. According to the study conducted by Chooi et al. (2019), obese individuals are at risk of developing hypertension since the arteries are constricted.  As such, Mr. C poor workout or physical inactivity has led to high blood pressure, overweight, sleep apnea, increased sugar level, and high levels of cholesterol.

Explain the staging of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and contributing factors to consider.

This is the final chronic diseases level where the kidneys’ functionality has severely reduced to about 10 percent of the typical capacity. In this stage, the kidney cannot remove excess wastes in the body. On addition, the stage makes it difficult for the kidney to perform other functions that are fundamental to the body such as adjusting electrolytes to the required levels for proper functioning of the body. The contributing factors include propelled age, diabetes, and hypertension.

Consider ESRD prevention and health promotion opportunities

One of ESRD prevention and health promotion opportunities is patient education. According to the study conducted Provenzano et al. (2020), patient education is very important since it encompasses patient’s engagement in self-management, particularly on risks of renal disease. Patients are informed and educated on the best ways to monitor their blood pressure as well as their level of glucose while advocating for change in terms of physical exercise, food habits, adherence to complicated medications, and avoidance of nephrotoxins.

Explain the type of resources available for ESRD patients

The resources that are available for ESRD patients include professional health centre such as transplant team dieticians, nephrologists, case management professionals, radiologists, and vascular surgery teams (Terpstra et al.,2019). Notably, nephrologists’ roles encompass assessing the renal disease etiology hence looking for the best care plan. The dieticians deal with correct food consumptions.  On the same note drug specialists deal with measurements and prescriptions. The geriatricians align the objective of care and manage prognosis discussions.





Angrisani, L., Santonicola, A., Iovino, P., Vitiello, A., Zundel, N., Buchwald, H., & Scopinaro, N. (2017). Bariatric surgery and endoluminal procedures: IFSO worldwide survey 2014. Obesity surgery27(9), 2279-2289.

Chooi, Y. C., Ding, C., & Magkos, F. (2019). The epidemiology of obesity. Metabolism92, 6-10.

Provenzano, M., Chiodini, P., Minutolo, R., Zoccali, C., Bellizzi, V., Conte, G., … & De Nicola, L. (2020). Reclassification of chronic kidney disease patients for end-stage renal disease risk by proteinuria indexed to estimated glomerular filtration rate: multicentre prospective study in nephrology clinics. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation35(1), 138-147.

Terpstra, M. L., Sinnige, M. J., Hugenholtz, F., Peters-Sengers, H., Remmerswaal, E. B., Geerlings, S. E., & Bemelman, F. J. (2019). Butyrate production in patients with end-stage renal disease. International journal of nephrology and renovascular disease12, 87.









Appendix A:

Communication Plan for an Inpatient Unit to Evaluate the Impact of Transformational Leadership Style Compared to Other Leader Styles such as Bureaucratic and Laissez-Faire Leadership in Nurse Engagement, Retention, and Team Member Satisfaction Over the Course of One Year

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