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  1. Identify components of research article worksheet    


    Discuss the Identify components of research article worksheet    


Subject Article Analysis Pages 4 Style APA


Article 1:  Read the JSPN article, How to Read a Research Article by Diane Hudson-Barr (2004) that is found in the Mod 1 assignment directions.   After reading Hudson-Barr‘s article, answer the In general” questions below.  Explain your answers in 1-3 sentences below each question

Article 2Read the article by Phan, Linh T., et al. (2019) Personal protective equipment doffing practices of healthcare workers. J of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Vol., 16(8), p. 575-581. https://doi.org/10.1080/15459624.2019.1628350

To do:  Type directly on this word.docx.  Read the two (2) articles, answer the below questions. Type your answers in “blue” ink below the question.  Answer in 1-3 complete sentences, using excellent grammar, spelling and sentence organization. These APA writing characteristics will be graded along with your answers.  Upload your completed worksheet to the assignment dropbox.

  1. Find the title.
    1. “In general,” what kind of information is found in the Title section of an article?

The title provides the general topic of the study (Hudson-Barr, 2004). It offers an idea of what the research study explored.

  1. How clear is the Phan, Linh T., et al., (2019) article title? Explain whether it’s clear, concise and accurate in describing the topic addressed in the article?

Personal protective equipment doffing practices of healthcare workers” is a very clear title. The clarity is reinforced by the precision and limited scope of the article. It is on personal protective equipment doffing practices of healthcare workers, not any other group.

  1. Find the abstract (summary at top of article):
    1. “In general,” what kind of information is found in the abstract section of a research article?

The abstract is simply a summary of the entire study in 100 words or less. It may also contain the research question, the subjects, methods, results and conclusions provided in summary too.

  1. What are the key points from the Phan, Linh T., et al., (2019) article’s abstract?

The abstract of Phan et al.’s (2019) article states that during the doffing of PPEs, pathogens can be transmitted from the PPE to the bodies of healthcare workers thus putting their lives and that of patients in danger. The period of research is also provided from—March 2017 to April 2018 (Phan et al., 2019). The place is an acute care hospital. A trained observer observed doffing practices. 90% of doffing practices were seen as incorrect, with various errors recorded. Deviations from recommended PPE doffing practices are common. This reinforces the need to change approach especially in training HCWs in PPE doffing practices.


  1. Find the Introduction or similar section (usually first paragraphs).
    1. “In general,” what kind of information is found in the introduction section of a research article?

This is where the rationale for the study is provided (Hudson-Barr, 2004). It specifies the actual versus the desired ideal. A summary of previous completed research is provided, coupled with the gaps in research. The identified gap is narrowed down and the introduction concludes with the hypothetical questions the research is attempting to ask—and answer.

  1. What are the key points from the Phan, Linh T., et al., (2019) article’s introduction?

The introduction takes note of the vitality of using PPEs in managing transmission of infectious diseases by many health workers. It asserts that PPEs must be used correctly. It attributes the infection of two nurses in Texas with the Ebola virus as cases where the failure or incorrect PPE use was seen (Phan et al., 2019). The study focused on observation of healthcare workers in an acute care hospital for patients with viral respiratory infections. The method used was direct observation within the hospital. It is also noted that previous research has noted low compliance with proper use of PPEs.

  1. Find the “Methods” or procedures (design, sample and data analysis) section or similar section.
    1. “In general,” what kind of information is found in the ‘Methods’ section of a research article?

This section contains the procedures used during the study. It details the subjects, the data collection characteristics and variables used. The logical nature of these methods is mentioned here too (Hudson-Barr, 2004).

  1. Write a VERY BRIEF summary of Phan, Linh T., et al., (2019) articles’ methods section.

The method overwhelmingly relied upon by this study was a direct observation on the subjects. There followed a review of the doffing practices. The study was approved by the University of Chicago Institutional Review Board, adding credence to the methods used. Patients with respiratory issues were identified through MedMined surveillance. The HCWs handling them were then observed. Data recorded were entered into a database using double data entry. Even while HCWs could take part more than once, the observations were treated independently.


  1. Look at the tables and figures. Generally, tables and figures provide a ‘picture’ of the author’s research that helps to clarify the findings.
    1. What tables and figures are provided in Phan, Linh T., et al., (2019) article? What kind of information do these tables contain?

Four tables and figures are used in this study. The first table computes the PPEs worn by healthcare workers by patient isolation category. Table 2 provides the errors observed in the doffing of PPEs by healthcare workers. The third table gives a summary of the doffing practices of healthcare workers by job roles, hospital units and patient isolation category. The final table provides the PPE doffing practices by patient isolation category (Phan et al., 2019).


  1. Find the “Results” (or findings) section.
    1. “In general,” what kind of information is found in the Results/findings section of a research study?

Here, the specific information about the collected data is provided. This is essentially the descriptive data as collected in the methods specified. It specifies the participants and how the variables affected the results (Hudson-Barr, 2004). The complexities in the relationships between the variables is then assessed in detail and at the end, a clear picture of what statistic was important and which one was not is seen.

  1. What are the major results/findings in Phan, Linh T., et al., (2019) article?

166 observations were made over the course of the study on 56 patients. Four observations were excluded from the study because the observer failed to observe the doffing practices of the healthcare workers in full. This left a sample size of 162. There were 63 nurses, 37 nurse technicians, 18 attending technicians, 15 resident technicians, 9 respiratory therapists, 7 nurse practitioners, 4 environmental service workers, 3 nursing students, 3 physical therapists, 2 medical students and 1 dietician. The overall adherence to wearing the PPE specified for each isolation categories was 60%. From all the data though, the overall incorrect doffing percentage was 90% based on the doffing sequence, doffing technique and use of correct PPE (Phan et al. 2019). Errors were fewer among healthcare workers providing care to patients in droplet isolation compares to when providing care to patients in droplets and contact isolation.


  1. Find the “Discussion” section.
    1. “In general,” what kind of information is found in the discussion section of a research study?

Here, the results of the study are interpreted. The meaning of collected and analyzed data is explained (Hudson-Barr, 2004). The limitations of the study are also provided. This is where the conclusions of the research study are mainly found.

  1. How well does Phan, Linh T., et al., (2019) article discuss the findings? Explain

The research asserts that proper use and doffing of PPE protects healthcare workers and patients from infectious diseases. With different design and methods, the findings of this research are consistent with previous researches. Gown doffing was the most common doffing problem among healthcare workers with doffing problems (Phan et al., 2019). The very high incorrect doffing rate is sufficiently explained as the analysis consisted of doffing technique, doffing sequence and the use of correct PPE. Hands-on training had been observed before as having the greatest impact in the adoption of the correct and consistent PPE use. The research recognizes that having been conducted at a single acute care hospital, there may arise the potential generalization of the problem to other healthcare environments.

  1. Find the “Conclusions/Implications” section.
    1. “In general,” what kind of information is found in the conclusion section of a research study?

In this section, the major research finding is restated, with its implications to future research areas clearly outlined in brief.

  1. Write a VERY BRIEF summary of Phan, Linh T., et al., (2019) article’s conclusions and implications.

The flouting of PPE doffing protocols was common, and this could increase the risk of self-contamination and the risks to patients. In 90% of observations, there were errors associated with the recommended protocol. A new approach to education and training has to be adopted to change this trend.

  1. Find the Reference list.
  • How many articles were cited?

16 references

  • What was the date range on them?

Between 2008-2019

  • What does this date range tell you about this topic?

The date range implies that the topic is relatively newly researched and explored.

  1. Briefly state additional comments on your thoughts and insight about this article and experience? How does it change your review of articles (if at all)?

This article follows all the formal elements of a research paper and lays out the standards upon which credible conclusions can be drawn. By reviewing this article, my appreciation of the topic is the one that changes, not opinion on the formal arrangement of the article itself. The arrangement of the elements however makes the discussion and conclusion parts essential to the understanding of the article.

  1. Reference both articles in APA format below:


  1. (Hudson-Barr)

Hudson-Barr, D. (2004). How to read a research article. JSPN, 9(2).

  1. (Phan, Linh T. et al.)

Phan, L. T., Maita, D., Mortiz, D. C., Weber, R., Fritzen-Pedicini, C., Bleasdale, S. C., Jones, R. M., & CDC Prevention Epicenters Program. (2019). Personal protective equipment doffing practices of healthcare workers. Journal of occupational and environmental hygiene, 16(8), 575–581. https://doi.org/10.1080/15459624.2019.1628350














Appendix A:

Communication Plan for an Inpatient Unit to Evaluate the Impact of Transformational Leadership Style Compared to Other Leader Styles such as Bureaucratic and Laissez-Faire Leadership in Nurse Engagement, Retention, and Team Member Satisfaction Over the Course of One Year

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