This is a continuation of my previous paper # 313328 with the topic being Cancer I will upload the paper but here are the new instructions Assignment 2: Project—Instructional Methods and Evaluation of Learning
post your response to the project task for this week in a 3–4 page Word document to the W4: Assignment 2 Dropbox. Use appropriate APA formatting.
For each objective of your instructional unit:
Describe the lesson content.
Provide a sequence for teaching activities.
Describe instructional strategies.
Indicate time allotted for each activity.
Identify and describe the instructional resources (materials, tools, etc.) and technology to be used.
Describe how the learning will be evaluated.
Assignment 2 Grading Criteria
Provided an appropriate description of the lesson content.
Provided a sequence for teaching activities and time allotted for each activity.
Described the instructional strategies.
Identified and described the instructional resources and technology.
Provided an evaluation methodology.
Instructional Methods and Evaluation of Learning about Cancer
Cancer is a disease that affects the human cells by making them abnormal and as a result divides without any control thereby invading other tissues. Currently, there are many different types of cancer affecting human beings. The disease is caused by changes in genetic makeup or mutation that are able to develop over a very long period of time. The processes that lead to production of cancer are similar in all the different types of the disease. Initially, a cell breaks free from the normal restraints during cell division after which it follows its own way of proliferation (Stewart & Kleihues, 2003). The broken cells form the abnormal cell having its own progeny in creating a mass of cells. They thus invade the nearby cells and spreading occurs across through the process of metastasis and invasion. Invasion involves direct migration of the cancer cells and penetration into neighboring tissues. Metastasis is whereby the cells penetrate into lymphatic cells and blood vessels thereby circulating in the blood stream and in the process invades normal tissues in the body through blood contact. Cancer cell tumors are threat to individual life because their growth disrupts the body tissues and organs that are significant for survival.
The growth of cancer cells and their differentiation within the body are precisely regulated in an orderly process that is fundamental to development of multicellular organisms. There is no single event that is enough in turning a cell into a cancerous one. Instead, the fact is that accumulation of damage to the number of multiple hits of genes across time is what leads to cancer (Stewart & Kleihues, 2003). When someone is given diagnosis, the doctor tries as much as possible to get rid of the cancer cells in the body. Most common treatments for cancer include chemotherapy method that involves killing cancer cells by use of drugs. Radiation, which is the killing of cancer cells through use of high energy rays. Lastly, is the surgery method that involves the removal of the cells through operation process (Stewart & Kleihues, 2003).
Teaching activities applied in the lesson
The use of index cards, newsprint and glue stick will be applicable. The students will be instructed that they will find facts on the various types of cancer obtained from the lesson content. The facts however do not say the exact cancer described as it will be the responsibility of the students to ascertain the type of cancer each fact represents. The students will be grouped equally for instance, with four different types of cancer. Four facts about each type will thus be cut and pasted on individual index cards. The facts are of prostrate, pancreatic, breast and lung types of cancer. Printing is also done on large newsprint and placed around classroom for the teaching activity. During the lesson, one card is distributed to every student and then allowed to read their facts to the others for them to determine the type of cancer the facts relate to. For instance, if the index card says smoking enhances chances of developing a particular type of cancer, then the student will determine that their group belongs to lung cancer and they are thus supposed to go to that group having the newsprint hung up for lung cancer. The groups established and assigned one type of cancer will then have the responsibility of making oral presentation on the particular type of cancer. The presentation addresses issues like the cause of that type of cancer, how it spread in the body, the type of people it targets, the risk factors involved and how it can be controlled. The symptoms patients have regarding the type of cancer is important as it will enable the learners identify the highly risked types of cancer and how they can associate with those types of patients. The entire activity should take place between 20 to 30 minutes.
These are techniques teachers use in the learning process to assist students become independent and strategic learners. These strategies become of importance in learning when students independently select the appropriate ones and apply them effectively in accomplishing different tasks or meeting goals. The strategies can motivate students by helping them focus attention, organize information for better understanding and remembering as well as monitoring and assessing learning. Successful strategic learners follow step-by-step strategic instructions and use various instructional approaches and learning materials. They also seek appropriate support that involves modeling, guided and independent practices as well as transferring skills and ideas from one instance to another (Lamon, 2012).
The instructional strategies comprises of cooperative learning that involves learning together in class at the same time by a specific teacher to bring fairness and equity. The tasks are performed by the entire class to promote effective learning. Group discussion is another strategy and it involves learning in a given number of students formed either by the teacher or by the students themselves. Group discussion is essential in learning since it comprises both good and weak students in class and it provides a platform for the weak students to express their weaknesses to the colleagues. As a result, any instruction given by the teacher concerning cancer disease will be passed to the entire class through the groups. Furthermore, independent study is also a learning strategy and it is important for further understanding of concepts that were taught or that are ought to be taught. It brings confidence to the learner. Role playing is vital because any teaching activity deployed by the teacher to illustrate an aspect of cancer in class is performed by all learners. Journals and learning logs including literature for obtaining further information regarding cancer is also an instructional strategy (Lamon, 2012).
Instructional resources and technology
The use of computers in the classroom to obtain much information about cancer as well as images pertaining to the types of cancer and their symptoms is a good teaching tool. The learners will get information that is both specific and general. Secondly, the use of audiotapes for the purpose of recall of verbal communication is important especially when teaching about the different symptoms associated with cancer. Verbal education whereby the teacher identifies, illustrates, demonstrates with a situation and explains in the class what cancer is, the causes, effects and treatment methods involved. Additionally, the use of written materials, pictures showing every stage of a particular cancer are effective to be used in class for the purpose of proper understanding to the learners (Chamberlain et al., 2002).
Teacher’s evaluation relies on the performance measures of the student. A comprehensive process for measuring teaching effectiveness provides foundation for assessing student performance through different strategies applied in teaching cancer. Conceptual models facilitate implementation of evidenced based types of cancer that focuses on teaching methodologies of cancer. A basis for establishing goals is formed to measure effectiveness of the teaching approaches applied.
Various systematic and rigorous criteria have been used by different scientists in evaluating claims about the possible factors that are involved in cancer development. Different people may evaluate the claims by applying criteria that are related to the source and certainty of supporting information. As a class, our understanding of cancer in improving personal life and public life will be applicable. Through translating such understanding into public policy, raises variety of issues for instance, role of society in governing the health practices of individuals. As a result, personal and public health will be preserved in an autonomous manner (Beattie, McInnes &Fearnley, 2004).
Stewart, B. W., & Kleihues, P. (Eds.). (2003). World cancer report (Vol. 57). Lyon: IARC press.
Chamberlain, R. M., Bakemeier, R. F., Gallagher, R. E., Kupchella, C. E., O’Donnell, J. F., Parker, J. A., … & Brooks, C. M. (2002). Cancer prevention education in United States medical schools. Journal of Cancer Education, 7(2), 105-114.
Lamon, S. J. (2012). Teaching fractions and ratios for understanding: Essential content knowledge and instructional strategies for teachers. Routledge.
Beattie, V., McInnes, B., & Fearnley, S. (2004, September). A methodology for analysing and evaluating narratives in annual reports: a comprehensive descriptive profile and metrics for disclosure quality attributes. In Accounting forum (Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 205-236). Elsevier.