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  1. Introduction to American Government    


    In essays of 4 to 6 pages (1,000 to 1,500 words), please answer the following questions by the due dates indicated. I expect you to write your essay based on the readings from the assigned text, on class forums, and on lectures and other video materials presented on the web site. I do not expect you to supplement these class-based sources with outside research.

    Each essay should provide appropriate citations to your sources. If this is the assigned text, you should use parenthetical endnoting with specific page references (e.g. Ginsberg, et. al. 2019: 41). If you are citing a lecture, you should provide the lecture number provided in the Canvas site. Citations to class forums should list the author’s name and the date of the post.

    Analytical Essay #1
    The Articles of Confederation and the Constitution reflected different visions of governance in the new United States. In an essay, describe the powers of the states and national government under the Articles of Confederation. Analyze the problems that national leaders perceived with governance under the Articles of Confederation that spurred the drafting of a new constitution and how the Constitution endowed the national government with the tools of coercion and the continuing ability to replenish its right to rule.


Subject Essay Writing Pages 5 Style APA


The Visions of Governance

The efforts of establishing governmental structures began in November 1977 when the Continental Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation. This was the first written constitution of the United States. The Articles of Confederation failed to be ratified in 1978. However, it remained as the operative constitution until late in 1978. The primary aim of the Articles of Confederation was to limit the powers of the central government. The powers of the government were divided, whereby both states and national governments were assigned different roles and powers. Nonetheless, national leaders found many problems with governance under the Article of Confederation, spurring the drafting of a new constitution. This paper outlines the differences in the powers of the states and the national government, as presented in the articles of confederation.  Further, the paper discusses the problems that national leaders saw in governance under the Articles of Confederation that led to the creation of the constitution and how the Constitution endowed the national government with the tools of coercion and the continuing ability to replenish its right to rule.

The Articles of Confederation created different powers for both states and the national government. Clearly, the states were assigned a lot of powers. Each state retained its Independence, sovereignty, powers, and freedom. Every amendment could only be with the consent of the states. Indeed, states remained powerful under the Articles of Confederation. Although leadership powers were designated to the national government, the states were left with powers to collect taxes (Ginsberg et al., 2019: 38). The states were given full economic power of collecting taxes from the citizens. The national government did not have the power to raise money directly from taxes, however, they requested the states for funds or borrowed from foreign governments. Further, the states had the powers over the commercial and development activities such as building various infrastructure. Finally, the states had the powers to pass and enforce bills into laws. All the states were represented in Congress, and no bill could pass into law before getting the approval of nine out of thirteen states.

Under the Articles of Confederation, the national government enjoyed powers that were expressively delegated by the states. However, the powers assigned to the national government were very limited. The national government had the powers to declare wars and make peace. Further, it conducted foreign affairs activities, settling inter-state disputes and requesting money from the states.  The national government also regulated the armed forces, appointed the civil servants regulating Indian Affairs. Unfortunately, the powers of the national government were limited due to financial constraints (Ginsberg et al., 2019: 39).  It was difficult for the national government to declare war or even control the military effectively because it lacked economic power. Furthermore, the national government depended on the states’ ability to pass and enforce laws. Every bill in Congress could only pass after seeking the consent of the majority of the states. In short, the national government depended on the states for law enforcement and financial support. Comparing the two, under the Articles of Confederation, the states were supreme over the national government. This caused significant rifts and problems in leadership.

After the declaration of independence and development of the Articles of Confederation, the transpiration was not enough to hold America together. Although, the Articles of Confederation, became the first document to create powers for states and national government, it created power problems. The national leaders perceived various problems with the Articles of Confederation. For example, the stiff competition among the states created division among the states. As the states competed for both economic and political powers, European powers joined hands to takes sides with states making America more weak and vulnerable.  At some point, when a leader in the Independence struggle named John Adams was sent to the British to negotiate a new treaty, the British government rejected the proposal claiming that the United States had failed to enforce the agreements within the individual states. This way, the national leaders saw that the Article of Confederation would only divide the American States and allow enemies to control the country (Ginsberg et al., 2019: 39). This spurred the need for developing a new constitution that would effectively unite Americans.

 Another problem perceived was the continuous domestic economic turmoil. Every state had the power to control and make commercial decisions. This created economic rivalry between the states and the national government. The states with few resources became less powerful. Further, the dependence of the national government on the states for revenue frustrated government affairs. This also made the national government less powerful to perform the assigned roles. The national government over-depended on the states to make essential decisions. Since they lacked financial and law enforcement power, the national government could not effectively carry out its roles. For example, it was difficult to control the military, declare war, and make foreign decisions without legislative and commercial powers. Generally, the national government seemed to be enjoying virtual powers. Without economic power and the powers to enforce the law, the national government was like a toothless dog. Therefore, the national leaders perceived a situation where America would be controlled by foreign powers. Furthermore, the leaders needed a balance in the country’s leadership, spurring the creation of the new constitution.

The framers of the new constitution created a way forward for peace and coercion through various tools. First, unlike in the Articles of Confederation, the constitution established an overall President of the United States. The president became the symbol of national unity. All the sates fell under the presidency. Further, the constitution created a federal judiciary. The rights and freedoms of all Americans were protected under the federal judiciary, headed by the Supreme Court unlike in the Articles of Confederation where the judiciary system that was controlled by the states. Further, the constitution created a bicameral legislature. Initially, the legislature was a unicameral system where the states appointed the delegates to the Congress (Ginsberg et al., 2019: 44). However, in the new system, each state was represented by two senators elected in the housed depending on the population of the state. The new constitution also gave Congress the economic power to collect taxes and regulate commerce while also controlling and maintaining the army[i]. Lastly, the constitution the constitution created three branches of the government that oversights each other. In short, the constitution eliminated the power struggles, and assigned the national government with adequate power and mandates to control the country.

In conclusion, governance in America followed a series of steps. It began by the creation of Articles for Confederation to the new constitution. While the Articles of Confederation gave more powers to the states, it spurred the writing of a new constitution that created a balance between states and the national government. The new constitution endowed the national government with adequate tools such as presidency, the power to collect taxes, proper judiciary system and a bicameral legislature with well-defined powers. The constitution was a tool for accountability, coercion, and tranquility.





Analyze the documentary: The Latino-American Experience



Analysis and Discussion of the Documentary “The Latino-America Experience Part I of IV

The documentary entitled, “The Latino-America Experience Part I of IV” features the thematic issue of skin-color stratification or colorism, which is among the major themes covered by Golash-Boza (2017).  Golash-Boza (2017) argues that the preference for light skin within the Americas seems to trace its roots to the era of colonization. This argument is evident in the film in that the Mulattos are depicted to have more privileges over local people. The Mulattos were products of the racial intermarriages between the Europeans and the Indigenous people. In the film, the Mulattos are depicted to have lighter skins than the Indigenous or local people, who are darker in complexion. By virtue of being Mulattos, families such as the Ramires and the Lugos enjoy more privileges over the local or indigenous people. Examples of such privileges are access to land, resources, laborers, and slaves. Therefore, it can be noted that the treatment of Mulattos in the film draws a parallel to the preferential treatment granted to individuals of mixed Dutch-Indonesian ancestry by the Japanese colonial authorities in Indonesia in 1942 as suggested by Golash-Boza (2017).

Apart from being depicted in the film, colorism continues to take root in the present society, whereby the lighter skin is valued over the darker one.  Golash-Boza (2017) asserts that women with lighter skin tone are perceived as more beautiful that women with darker skin color. My personal life experience can relate to this argument. Being an Indian girl of fair skin, I have often experienced situations where I am favored over my Indian girlfriend, who has a darker skin tone. For example, in restaurants, attendants always inquire from me about our orders and not from my girlfriend. Besides, the waitresses and waiters often serve me first before moving to serve my girlfriend. As such, the theme of colorism covered in the documentary relates to my personal experience and opinions of Golash-Boza (2017) regarding skin color stratification.


Golash-Boza, M. T. (2017). Race and Racisms: A Critical Approach. Oxford: Oxford University Press

MrGartLandsClass. (2015, October 4). The Latino-American Experience PART I of VI. [Video File]. MrGartLandsClass. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AtBuUOKQsQ0







Standardized Nursing Language




Review the concepts of informatics as presented in the Resources, particularly Rutherford, M. (2008) Standardized Nursing Language: What Does It Mean for Nursing Practice? 




Transforming Nursing and Healthcare through Technology


The complex nature of the nursing environment demands that the profession emphasize standards and requirements of practice. The practice of nursing remains to be one of the most dynamic professions in the healthcare system, mainly contributed to increased demand for quality and patient-centred care. It entails a collaborative approach to attain optimized care outcomes and one of the areas of concern in the recent years touches transformations through technology and the need for nurses to develop knowledge that meets the demands of the changing practice. Transformation in nursing entails every aspect of clinical change endeared towards improving the way patients care is implemented. Transformation involves the adoption of technology in the management of patient records, improvement of leadership to enhanced knowledge acquisition and incorporation of tools and capacities that facilitate utilization of data to inform clinical decisions (Törnvall & Jansson, 2017).

Recent developments in nursing practice transformation indicate a growing gap in how nurse professions understand standardized nursing terminologies. The imperatives of standardized nursing terminologies underscore the need to establish a conventional means of communication as practice approaches increasingly shift towards utilization of data as part of evidence-based nursing. It is essential that all nurses in practice internalize standardized terminologies and guidelines of training and using the case of Rutherford (2008), provides a perfect example of why nurse educators need to promote knowledge acquisition. Enhancing terminology grasp can be a role of individual nurses or leadership. The practical nursing practice relies on continuous learning and assessment of changes and as a nurse leader, taking the responsibility of explaining to the nurses on the importance of standardized terminologies would be fundamental to the achievement of positive care outcomes (Rachmania, 2016).

Ideally, a nurse leader should be able to explain to nurses the importance of standardized language by affirming the need to establish commonalities in describing care, interventions, patient assessment and problem identification. It would be imperative that nurses from different units, hospitals and geographic areas communicate concisely on treatment options and responses besides establishment of frameworks that allow visibility of practices and comparisons in different settings (Törnvall & Jansson, 2017). The implications of standardized nursing language would be another aspect that would be used to explain to the nurses on its necessity, including its contribution to improving effective care and description of nursing outcomes.

Implementation of standardized nursing terminologies in nursing practice continues to attract significant attention, especially with the increasing demand for quality care pegged on evidence-based practice. The contribution of standardized nursing terminology has been immense according to the observation of clinical practices where its implementation has occurred. Standardized nursing terminologies contributes to a better understanding among nurses and other healthcare providers. Previous developments in introduction and implementation of standards in nursing practices indicate increasing efficiency of care and one area of immense benefit in nursing entailed the adoption of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) whose primary role is to provide common language and terminologies in mental health care (Rutherford, 2008). The streamlined manual communication between nurses, physicians and the general practitioners when it came to dealing with mental health patients. It bridged the gaps of communication and understanding in diagnosis processes and treatment interventions, and the introduction of North American Nursing Diagnosis in 1973 further affirmed the benefits of standardized language in improving communication among medical professions. According to Rutherford (2008), implementation of standardized language as a component of communication enhancement in nursing allows commonness in infection control, safety promotion and knowledge acquisition.

Increased visibility of nursing intervention in the care environment a critical consideration transformative nursing endeared towards achieving quality care. Using standardized language in nursing improves the ability for nurses to express their treatment interventions and care processes to patients besides assuming an improved approach in assessing and recording patient information (Macieira et al., 2017). The increased utilization of technology, especially in patient record management systems, requires the standardized language in terms of describing nursing care activities and improving the overall reliance on patient-centred care and consistent documentation. Unless nurses in the care environment use standardized terminologies to describe intervention, treatment and procedures, visibility of what they correctly do to patients becomes impaired. It can proliferate to undermine evidence-based practice (Macieira et al., 2017).

Improved patient care describes aspects of nursing practice that reflect optimal support to treatment plans, greater transparency, continuity of care beyond the hospital settings and promotion of well-informed diagnosis processes. The implementation of standardized terminologies in nursing care remains to be one of the essential components that benefit nursing practice in terms of achieving improved patient care. The Nursing Outcomes Classification Symptom Severity Indicators is a component of that puts into perspective the contribution of standardized language in enhanced patient care (Rutherford, 2008). Previous observation of the application of the classification system suggests that the fact it outlines disease symptoms significantly improves how nurses approach to care for specific conditions. For example, nurses would be able to determine the diagnosis, treatment options and care procedures based on associated care classification in the manual.

Similarly, standardized language remains exceptionally beneficial when it comes to data collection and evaluation of nursing care outcomes. The evidence-based practice relies on the effectiveness of data collection and evaluation of nursing practices which cannot be achieved without establishing a common language framework. Recording nursing processes, procedures and treatment options using standardized terminologies enhance consistency necessary for comparisons of quality of outcomes focusing on different nursing interventions (Rutherford, 2008). The implementation of electronic documentation and electronic health records to improve healthcare outcomes through enhanced access to information require standardized approaches in terminologies. It will allow healthcare professions and patients to access and easily understand care procedures, diagnosis and treatment options regardless of geographical locations or settings.

Although the implementation of the standardized language in nursing contributes significantly to improved quality of care and overall outcomes of care practices, several issues have recognized to create barriers to optimize its benefits. The challenges in the implementation of SNL may range from nursing perception to lack of capacity to integrate different aspects. One of the areas of concern when it comes to SNL implementation relates to nursing attitudes (Okun et al., 2011). Observations indicate that nurses and other healthcare providers may believe that SNL is not essential to their practice. In contrast, others perceive that the use of SNL integrated into electronic health records is difficult. Other challenges in the implementation of SNL include lack of availability of Standardized Nursing Language in electronic health records, difficulties in documenting nursing care, high level of nurse demands creating limited time for documentation and lack of reimbursement for nursing documentation (Okun et al., 2011).

The imperatives of SNL in the practice of nursing forms a critical approach in achieving transformative nursing pegged on improving the overall quality of care, enhance the visibility of nursing practices and enhanced evaluation of nursing practices. The nursing practice must focus on increasing the scope of SNL utilization besides understanding that challenges such as poor nurse attitude, lack of SNL in electronic health records and lack of reimbursement for nursing documentation must be addressed to achieve further benefits.



















Macieira, T. G., Smith, M. B., Davis, N., Yao, Y., Wilkie, D. J., Lopez, K. D., & Keenan, G. (2017). Evidence of progress in making nursing practice visible using standardized nursing data: A systematic review. In AMIA Annual Symposium Proceedings (Vol. 2017, p. 1205). American Medical Informatics Association.

Okun, S., Williams, M. Y., Sensmeier, J., Troseth, M. R., Conrad, D., Sugrue, M., … & Frink, B. B. (2011). Summer Institute in Nursing Informatics (SINI) 2011 Part IV.

Rachmania, D. (2016). Development of Nursing Diagnosis and Intervention Instrument Based on Standardized Nursing Language (Nanda-i, Noc, Nic). Jurnal Ners11(2), 157-163.

Rutherford, M. (2008). Standardized nursing language: What does it mean for nursing practice. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing13(1), 243-50.

Törnvall, E., & Jansson, I. (2017). Preliminary evidence for the use of standardized nursing terminologies in different fields of application: a literature review. International journal of nursing knowledge28(2), 109-119.




Challenges for Nurse Execs.    




Review the Resources and reflect on the web article Big Data Means Big Potential, Challenges for Nurse Execs.    



As the volume of data increases, information professionals have looked for ways to use big data—large, complex sets of data that require specialized approaches to use effectively. Big data has the potential for significant rewards—and significant risks—to healthcare. In this Discussion, you will consider these risks and rewards.
To Prepare:
• Review the Resources and reflect on the web article Big Data Means Big Potential, Challenges for Nurse Execs.
• Reflect on your own experience with complex health information access and management and consider potential challenges and risks you may have experienced or observed.
Post a description of at least one potential benefit of using big data as part of a clinical system and explain why.

Then, describe at least one potential challenge or risk of using big data as part of a clinical system and explain why.
Propose at least one strategy you have experienced, observed, or researched that may effectively mitigate the challenges or risks of using big data you described. Be specific and provide examples.

Describe at least one potential benefit of using big data as part of a clinical system and explain why.
Then, describe at least one potential challenge or risk of using big data as part of a clinical system and explain why. Propose at least one strategy you have experienced, observed, or researched that may effectively mitigate the challenges or risks of using big data you described. Be specific and provide examples.



Healthcare Improvements through Technology

The healthcare industry over time has created large data, determined by actual record keeping, directing requirements, and patient health care. Even though most information is kept in hard copy, the present development is concerning prompt digitization of the large amounts of   data. Big data are large and complex sets of electronic healthcare information that cannot be managed manually or with common information management tools and techniques. This paper explains big data analysis in health care, discourses the benefits, and the possible challenges.

Possible Benefit of Utilizing Big Data

Potential benefits of using big data include disease detection at earlier stage when they are curable more efficiently, establishing a viable healthcare structure by handling specific patient health and encouraging effective use of resources. In clinical operations, comparative study can be applied to determine clinically applicable and cost-effective techniques to analyze and manage patients. The public health can analyze disease patterns and follow-up disease outbreaks and spread to improve public health surveillance. The large amounts of information can be turned into actionable data that can be utilized to recognize requirements, deliver services, forecast and avoid crises.

In several nations, big data has turn out to be an essential record where data produced could be utilized for treating and managing diseases. The field of nursing keeps improving with proper data application and research, which has resulted to the effective assessment of data that allows rapid improvements in the patient health care and outcomes. Big data contains information that needs in-depth examination. Rallapalli, Gondkar, and Kumar (2016) demonstrated that a Chief Nursing Executive examines data manually. It is a labor-intensive procedure, comparatively, since the technology structures have traditionally been established in silos. The synthesis of big data allows medical practitioners to evaluate significant quantities of information in a structured manner. Through research and development, the nurses can use predictive modeling to reduce attrition and cultivate a more directed research and development line in medicines and policies. Medical trials and patient records can be examined to ascertain consequent suggestions and determine adverse results before the products are distributed in the market.

Examining big data permits medical professionals to evaluate the influence of their patient involvement and establish appropriate adjustments for improved patient outcomes. Pastorino et al. (2019) showed that analytic skills in health care can be utilized to ascertain forms of health care and determine links from substantial healthcare registers, consequently allowing a wider understanding for evidence-based medical preparation. Integrating big data into nursing exercise gives medical practitioners the opportunity to improve patient health care participations and outcomes.

The psychiatric facility in the medical institution I work for currently use big data analysis in supervising and evaluating patient threats and control patterns. At the medical institution, they used the data collected from the electronic health record, and thereafter populate program databases on either monthly or yearly basis that could be used for more examination of health care. We could do a comparison of the data from our medical facility to that of the local affiliates on every level. Access to this data gave us the opportunity for patient care adjustment and future involvement forecasting concerning the effective use of big data.

Integrated documentation consist of every patient risk valuations in the database, and this entails circumstances of injury and suicidal thinking. For example, we can supervise specific patient health throughout their stay in the hospital, and we can entirely examine safety steps in the database. We then link these stages amid every residential performances and the inpatient divisions at the associate psychiatric clinic to assess strategies and apply any essential changes.

Challenges of Utilizing Big Data

The main challenge of utilizing big data in a medical organization would be the likelihood of human mistakes (Pastorino et al., 2019). The skills that we use for medical information certification and examination is formulated to operate well with the data we install. It needs guarantee that proper steps are applied to install the data correctly to obviate future mistakes in analyzing data. The existing process for recording any risk in the formerly stated information assessment rests exclusively on the nursing department. We are answerable for recording patient risk valuations and adding this information in the examination of the data. In case a nurse records a risk assessment in the shift note record, this will not automatically be filled into the monthly reviews. We are liable for assessing every graph and then transfer the data to the next examination chain. In doing so, it is usually easy for a nurse to miss the documentation process when shifting that information to a database. Therefore, all the documentations must be clear and accurate (Thew, 2016). Even though using big data can yield useful outcomes for nursing exercise, we should be sure that we are accurately utilizing the existing technology.

Strategy of Mitigating this Problem

Numerous measures can be introduced to lessen the extent of the risk of human mistake with the use of big data. We have structured many features into the data research approach in our medical facility to guarantee the information we are examining is correct. The source of human error starts from shift note record, and it goes on to the whole review procedure. To solve this problem, we have to install an auto-populated catalogue that automatically transfers the data directly from every authenticated shift note. Even though the solution is viable in the future, it needs confirmation to avoid potential errors.

When using big data, one needs to first confirm that the information is being recorded correctly and consistently from the start since the nurses record the risk data manually in the designated places. The assigned nurses must consistently be trained on proper documentation of risk data, and the method of transferring data into the patient database, on either monthly, quarterly or yearly basis. Evidence-based risk assessments can be integrated into the preferred records to validate that the risk conditions are conforming to the hospital regular measures. Zhu, Han, Su, Zhang, and Duan (2019) demonstrated that when single comprehensive data is developed, medical structures are likely to facilitate proficient information; nevertheless, upholding compliance with privacy guidelines. Throughout the improvement plans, the medical institution must continue to emphasize the importance of appropriate nursing recording and the importance of the information. Nurses should be provided with a conducive environment to record the shift notes and examine the data. This will allow effective analysis and usage of these data examination approaches in our preparation.

Big Data has a significant prospective of improving health care position, for example, in discovering new drugs, patients healthcare, effective treatment, development in health outcomes, and patients welfare management. Big data analysis can transform the method healthcare practitioners utilize complex technologies to gain understanding from their medical and other data sources and make well-versed results. 





Pastorino, R., De Vito, C., Migliara, G., Glocker, K., Binenbaum, I., Ricciardi, W., & Boccia, S. (2019). Benefits and challenges of Big Data in healthcare: an overview of the European initiatives. European journal of public health, 29(Supplement_3), 23-27. 10.1093/eurpub/ckz168.

Rallapalli S, Gondkar RR, & Kumar Ketavarapu, UP (2016) Impact of Processing and Analyzing Healthcare Big Data on Cloud Computing Environment by Implementing Hadoop Cluster. Procedia Computer Science 85: 16-22.

Thew, J. (2016). Big data means big potential, changes for nurse execs. Retrieved from https://www.healthleadersmedia.com/nursing/big-data-means-big-potential-challenges-nurse-execs

Zhu, R., Han, S., Su, Y., Zhang, C., Yu, Q., & Duan, Z. (April 10, 2019). The application of big data and the development of nursing science: A discussion paper. International Journal of Nursing Sciences, 6, 2, 229-234.




The principle features of death-related encounters


Identify and explain some of the principle features of death-related encounters (Death Rates, Average Life Expectancy, Causes of Death, Death Trajectories, Location of Death) and the six factors associated with these changes (Industrialization, Public Health Measures, Preventative Care, Modern Cure-Oriented Medicine, Nature of Contemporary Families and Lifestyles). Include specific examples.



Principles Features and Factors Related to Death-Related Encounters

Typically, death-related encounters have various key components that determine the demise happenstances within a specific region or locality. Additionally, these principles vicissitudes due to multiple factors that are influenced by how individuals live. This essay, therefore, identifies and elucidates various important components of death related encounters. Furthermore, it pinpoints – with explanations – different dynamics that are related with the vicissitudes.

Principle Features of Death-Related Encounters

           Death rate is one of the key elements of death related encounters. Death rate is the ratio of death to the population of a particular area within a specific period. Average life expectancy is another principle feature of death related. It is the average number year an individual is estimated to animate (Mandal, 2019). Additionally, death cause – medical reason or source of loss of life of an individual – is also a fundamental principle element of death related encounters. Notably, death trajectory stands as another key component of demise concomitant happenstances. Death trajectory is a demise pattern when an individual or a patient is provided with an anticipated date of death. Moreover, the location of death can be categorized as either hospital, out-of-hospital, and terminal care death.

Factors that are Concomitant with the Variations

One of the dynamics that is related with death-related encounters is Industrialization. Death rates are usually lesser in developed countries. Another factor is the public health measures. It is a nonmedical involvement used to lessen the spread of a malady. Additionally, preventive care is also another vital factor. These are medical services provided to combat any medical advents. Furthermore, modern cure-oriented medicine is the advancement of the medication used, particularly in the prevention and cure of infectious diseases. Another factor is the contemporary family who might include single families with single parents, blended or stepfamilies. Moreover, lifestyle – away in which an individual lives – is also a key factor. 






















Dr. Ananya Mandal, M. (2019). What is Life Expectancy? Retrieved 20 June 2020, from https://www.news-medical.net/health/What-is-Life-Expectancy.aspx





How social media shape personal identity


How does social media shape personal identity? In what sense might its role in identity development be considered problematic, and are there senses in which it might be liberating or promote personal growth?



Influence of Social Media on Personal Identity


The increased usage of technology in the current 21st century has enhanced the rates at which users benefit from online platforms, for example, improved communication and enhanced living experience. According to Gündüz (2017), the use of digital networks has resulted to an enhanced experience for users by creating a platform where the users can showcase their livelihood experiences. Social media usage provides a reflection of the various dimensions about the user’s position in the physical and virtual social life. This further suggests that people have a role to play in the social arena. Gündüz (2017) further states that social media enables our identity exploration, expression and experimentation, which is a natural aspect of human experience. Social media is, therefore, a tool that influences behavior, and accordingly aids in the crafting of personal identity. Although social media results in the establishment of therapeutic advantages, the use of the social networks can also result to the negative self-development, which further influences the general mental health and wellbeing of the users. This paper argues that digital media directly shapes personal identity by influencing the users’ behavioral change.

The theory of the Self

The theory of the self, proposed by Skinner suggests that a person’s behavior will always be influenced by the rewards which he/she gets from conforming to several group behaviors guided by their roles and performance. In-person interactions are effective in understanding how people interact online. The use of social media sites, such as Twitter and Facebook, is a phenomenon that is continually gaining prominence in the world today. The digital platforms make it possible for users to create profiles which they can further utilize to communicate details about their lives and establish networks with friends and other users (Westgate & Wilson, 2018). As a result, the friends or followers can visualize one post and read their comments as they navigate through one’s profile. It is, therefore, likely that users of social media platforms are likely to suffer from physical and mental health problems such as depression and anxiety.

How Social Media Shapes Personal Identity

                In the current digital age, the internet is considered as one of the most essential tools. It connects people by facilitating the process of sharing diverse media content regardless of their geographical locations. However, its usage is also associated with drastic negative impacts. For instance, digital media use is associated with the widespread of violence and pornographic content which can be accessed by young people whose psychology is not prepared to process or consume this kind of information. According to Schneider, Gruman and Coutts (2012), adults are also affected negatively when they are exposed to pornographic content shared on some social media platforms. The social media creates an environment defined by a wide pool of information which users can access.

                The content which the social media users are exposed to when using social media changes how they think about others and themselves. Schneider, Gruman and Coutts (2012) argue that young people are highly influenced by the values embraced by the use of social media. Evidently, social media will offer numerous interpretations of what it means to be attractive, beautiful and sexy. The users are known to be vulnerable to the influences especially when they are accurately engaged with the use of social media platforms. Schneider, Gruman and Coutts (2012) provide an emphasis on the fact that adolescents are at a vulnerable stage associated with the formation of identity. Notably, people establish a sense of the self from creating an impression which they wish to provide to others (Schneider, Gruman & Coutts, 2012).

Adolescents and young adults, those between the age of 18 and 20 years, will often rely on their social contacts with an aim of figuring who they are. With the social media emergence, the process of establishing a sense of the self has been moved into the virtual sphere. Thus, the individuals may be tempted to construct a false self-presentation to ensure that they fit within their social circle group. In this case, the established self might be based on false constructs that social media offers to the world. For instance, the concepts of good, pretty, appealing and tempting may be wrongly constructed over the social media, which a person may embrace as a self-identity. Arguably, all the aspects which represent the one true self will not conform to the notions, and hence may be rejected by an individual.

                Additionally, social media imagery can result to exaggerated body dissatisfaction, which further exposes users to be at a risk for eating disorders such as anorexia. This situation is mainly true for the case of female users. On the other hand, male users can be exposed to violent media content that can increase their chances of engaging in violent behaviors (Schneider, Gruman & Coutts, 2012). Therefore, it is a fact that the social media significantly affects how people view the surrounding world as well as the relationship that people have with themselves and the others.



When the Role of Social Media in Identity Development is Considered                Problematic

                The role of social media in identity development will be considered problematic when  it aids the identification of the false self-concept. According to Vannucci, Flannery and Ohannessian (2017), an association exists between the use of social media and depression symptoms. Evidently, passive social media users can establish symptoms of depression mainly expressed through poor self-esteem and reduced mood. Notably, when social media users go through the content written by other users, in the news feeds or other social media posts, they are more likely to go into a depression based on how they interpret the content. According to Westgate and Wilson (2018), social media users have the ability to develop cognitive biases, which further makes it easier for them to misinterpret the behaviors and actions of the others as threatening or self-referent. As a result, when in the virtual environment whereby one cannot avoid viewing the information posted by other social media users, a site visitor may be prompted to be suspicious about his/her identity, and this can again result to the development of depression.

                According to Aalbers et al. (2019), passive social media usage also proves to be problematic as it exposes users to an environment where they can develop negative feelings after developing false identities. Arguably, social media sites have the capacity to elicit a downward comparison whereby a user considers him/herself to be less favorable in comparison to other social media users (Aalbers et al. 2019). With the development of social comparisons, users further establish social ranks whereby they relate themselves to others based on relative power or social attractiveness (Aalbers et al. 2019). This development of perceived social ranks development can be detrimental to the users’ health in that it results to poor mood and a low self-esteem (Westgate & Wilson, 2018). Moreover, the negative social comparison which users engage in while using social media increases their chances of developing depression due to repeated experiences of low self-esteem. 

                Despite the negative impacts of the influence of social media on personal identity, social media use can facilitate personal growth of the users. Evidently, social media networks have increasingly gained popularity and in turn influenced millions of users, especially college and university students and teenagers. The social networks can promote personal circle development due to the platforms’ ability to facilitate interaction and socialization. According to Ukpong (2014), social media is associated with a form of immediacy in contrast to the traditional means of communication. The immediacy and the associated features of the media has influenced theories and further affected the study of business as well as enhanced the means of interaction. Notably, users who lacked self-confidence while interacting with others on a face-to-face platform can now overcome their fears and develop self-confidence when interacting with others virtually. Moreover, Ukpong (2014) establishes that social media has improved users’ self-confident, which has consequently played a significant role in promoting personal growth by enhancing their communication skills. Furthermore, social media use has provided the youths and other users with unique opportunities to interact people from different religions, cultural backgrounds and geographical locations, thereby improving their intercultural competence and social awareness (Ukpong, 2014).

                Lastly, social media is also known to have a strong capability of positively influencing mental health. Schneider, Gruman and Coutts (2012) are of the view that emotions expressed over the online platform influences an individual’s mood. This means that social media does not only aid in relieving social isolation, but it also opens new communication pathways and provides the required support. With social media, for example, users can share their experiences and thoughts that are fundamental towards establishing their identity. Additionally, social media usage benefits mental health by allowing the users to develop an enhanced self-expression talent without fear.

Recommendations for Development

                The rate at which people use social media indicates that more users will continue using the digital platforms in the future despite its drastic impacts (Trifiro & Gerson, 2019). It is, therefore, recommended that effective measures should be undertaken to prevent the detrimental health effects associated with accessing social media sites (Trifiro & Gerson, 2019). This can include coming up with a universal measure for development. A universal measure for passive and active social media use would be established to meet several requirements. For instance, similar behaviors should first be identified over several social media platforms such as text-based and image-based sites, including Twitter and Instagram. Moreover, since the social media landscape is constantly changing, it is important that the measures to be developed should meet the needs and requirements of day-to-day changes experienced over the platforms (Trifiro & Gerson, 2019). The language used in developing the social media platforms should be also generalized and understandable by all users. Subsequently, the scale would need to be validated through the use of multiple social media sites to ensure that it is reliable and applicable across several platforms (Trifiro & Gerson, 2019).



                Although social media use results in the establishment of therapeutic advantages, the use of the sites can result in the development of negative self-image,  which can influence the general mental health and wellbeing of the users. The use of social media platforms directly impacts the creation of personal identity. Evidently, the use of digital platforms exposes the users to an environment where they can reflect on both the virtual and physical aspects of life. Additionally, social media platforms allow the users to express their emotions and explore their self-identity. Furthermore, being a constant social media user allows one to create an identity based on the content available in the media.

One can develop a negative self-identity based on negative beliefs crafted by the information accessed passively over the platforms. The outcome is devastating as the potential for developing drastic mental effects is intensified alongside the loss of self-esteem. While social media sites can result to the development of negative impacts on self-identity development, it can also aid in positive development, especially from the communication perspective. Notably, social media sites have enhanced the way people communicate across different boundaries. Since people do not have to communication on a face-to-face basis over the platforms, confidence in communication is enhanced among non-confident users.






Aalbers, G., McNally, R. J., Heeren, A., de Wit, S., & Fried, E. I. (2019). Social media and depression symptoms: A network perspective. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 148(8), 1454-1462.  

Gündüz, U. (2017). The Effect of Social Media on Identity Construction. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. 8. 10.1515/mjss-2017-0026.

Schneider, F. W., Gruman, J. A. & Coutts, L. M. (2012). Applied Social Psychology. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA SAGE Productions, Inc.

Trifiro, B. & Gerson, J. (2019). Social Media Usage Patterns: Research Note Regarding the Lack of Universal Validated Measures for Active and Passive Use. Sagepub.

Upkong, E. (2014). The Positive and Negative Effects of Social Media. Munich: GRIN Verlag.

Vannucci, A., Flannery, K. M., & Ohannessian, C. M. (2017). Social media use and anxiety in emerging adults. Journal of affective disorders, 207, 163-166.

Westgate, E. C., & Wilson, T. D. (2018). Boring thoughts and bored minds: The MAC model of boredom and cognitive engagement. Psychological Review, 125(5), 689.







The corona virus disease 2019 (COVID 19) pandemic affect on both the Canadian and global economies in various ways.


Discuss The corona virus disease 2019 (COVID 19) pandemic affect on both the Canadian and global economies in various ways.


Current Economic Situation

The corona virus disease 2019 (COVID 19) pandemic has affected both the Canadian and global economies in various ways. Primarily, business activities have declined, thereby leading to a reduction in many economic practices, which act as vital sources of revenue to economies.  Consequently, economic recovery programs are required to revive businesses.

The Global Economy

The growth of the global economy has been disrupted by the current health crisis leading to a contraction of the overall world economy. Ideally, before the COVID 19 pandemic, there was increased optimism regarding the global economy due to the phase one trade agreement between China and the USA. The agreement had led to growth in the manufacturing sectors of both countries, which also influenced the improvement in the labour and service sectors.  However, due to the economic retardation effect from measures carried out to stop COVID 19, there has been a significant reduction in economic activities at the global level.

The decline has led to various undesired changes such as growing unemployment, reduction in income levels, decreasing commodity prices, and increasing levels of indebtedness. The disruption is as shown in chart one, which is based on the purchasing manager’s index (PMI) over six years. Economic recovery at the global level will vary from region to region, making it challenging to have a single international policy.

Figure 1: COVID 19 disruption on the global economy.

Canadian Economy

The Canadian economy has firm employment resilience, which is expected to hold during the Covid 19 pandemic. The continuing effect of the pandemic has led to a sharp decline of economic activities, which included reduced demand, supply, and income levels.  Moreover, the inability to know how long the pandemic will last is affecting spending behaviours of both individuals and business as people avoid spending. Investment has also been affected negatively.  The lower commodity prices is a significant impact on Canada’s changed terms of trade and the decline in exports.

The reduction in oil and gas prices has also affected the Canadian economy, which relies on the sector significantly.   As such, investment in the oil and gas sector has also dropped.  In collective responses to these changes, most Canadian businesses, which are economic drivers, have reduced operating workers, send home workers, and cut pay levels.   Furthermore, the reduction in investment has also contributed to a reduction in household spending and income.  For instance, in March 2020, over a million jobs were lost in Canada, while the other two million employees started working on reduced shifts, as shown in figure one.

Figure one.




Bank of Canada (2020). Monetary Policy Report – April 2020.  Retrieved from https://www.bankofcanada.ca/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/mpr-2020-04-15.pdf














Ginsberg et al. (2019). We the People (12th Ed.)

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