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  1. Kidney Functions and Related Diseases


    Discuss Kidney Functions and Related Diseases


Subject Nursing Pages 3 Style APA


Kidney Functions and Related Diseases

          The kidney is one of the vital organs in the body; it a pair of two bean-shaped organs with the abdomen, each about the size of a fist. Usually, it is located just below the rib cage, one on each side of the spine. The kidneys are responsible for removing waste products, drugs, toxins, and excess water from filtration and urine formation. Also, it keeps chemical and hormonal imbalance to control the blood pressure and stimulate the bone marrow to make red blood cells. Consequently, the kidneys are susceptible to diseases. This paper, therefore, highlights reasons why proteins are not filtered in the glomerulus, functions of bladder and urethra in urine formation. Moreover, it explains the causes of Proteinuria, including Wilms tumor and cellular components involved.

Question 1: Why are Proteins Not Filtered at the Glomerulus

The glomerulus is made up of a loop of a capillary network twisted into a ball shape, surrounded by a Bowman’s capsule. The selective filtration that restricts proteins from being filtered is based on the glomerulus’ two components: glomerular basement membrane and the Bowman’s Capsule’s epithelial cells. Notably, the glomerular basement membrane has three critical layers that limit the filtration of intermediate and large solute proteins. These layers include lamina rara interna, which is the thinner most inner layer of the basement membrane (Chew, 2020). This layer is followed by the lamina densa layer, which is the thicker layer of the glomerular basement membrane. Moreover, there is a lamina rara externa, which forms the basement membrane’s outer most-dense layer. Therefore, the glomerular basement membrane layers of the glomerulus play a critical role in protein filtration.

Additionally, another reason why proteins are not filtered is that the glomerulus is also made up of the Bowman’s capsule, also known as the podocytes. Podocytes are specialized with foot-like processes that protrude and interdigitate to form filtration slits in the Bowman’s Capsule of the glomerulus. Subsequently, these filtration slits are connected by a thin diaphragm forming the slit diaphragm, which usually has tiny pores. Consequently, the pores prevent or restrict the filtration of large molecules in the glomerulus. Moreover, the glomerular layers have negatively charged cells which also restricts the protein filtration.                                                             

Question 2: How Do the Bladder and Urethra Function in the Urine Formation.

Urine is formed in the kidneys, after which it travels down into the bladder through two tubes known as ureters. The bladder is a triangle-shaped hollow organ muscular sac that is located in the lower abdomen. Its location is strategic for urine storage. Consequently, the bladder enables urination to occurred infrequently and controllably. Notably, for the bladder to function perfectly in the urine formation process, it is made up of bladder walls that relax to allow expansion for urine storage. Consequently, the urine walls can contract and flatten to empty urine through the urethra. Furthermore, the bladder is made up of two sphincter muscles that primarily help keep urine from leaking. The muscles achieve this by tightly closing the openings of the bladder like a rubber band. Besides the two sphincter muscles, the bladder is also made up of numerous nerves that transfer information or make communication from the brain when it is time to urinate or empty the bladder.

In urine formation, there is also the urethra that allows urine to leave the bladder and outside the body. In the last urine formation process, the nerves in the bladder transfer the signal from the brain to the bladder muscles to tighten. Resultantly, the tightening squeezes the urine of the bladder through the urethra to outside the body. Additionally, the brain signals alert the sphincter muscles to relax and allow the urine to pass out. Consequently, the entire urination occurs to complete the process of urine formation.  

Question 3: What causes Proteinuria

Proteinuria occurs due to the presence of proteins in the urine. In most cases, Proteinuria is caused by kidney dysfunction and temporary preexisting medical conditions. The first temporary condition causes dehydration, inflammation, and low blood pleasure. For instance, the blood flow pressure, specifically through the kidney, determines the number of proteins that might pass into the urine during blood purification. Additionally, Proteinuria can also be caused by extreme exercise or activities, emotional stress, aspirin therapy, exposure to cold over a long period. The mentioned causative factor directly influences one’s physiological makeup and process of the body organ, including the kidneys’ functions. Moreover, kidney stones within the urinary tract are also a potential causative concern of Proteinuria.

More specifically, it can be caused by a gradual loss of kidney function due to a severe or chronic kidney condition, which may ultimately need dialysis or a kidney transplant. Notably, diabetes and high blood pressure are among the top two causes of kidney-related disease. Moreover, potentially kidney-harming disease and medical condition may be some of the causes of Proteinuria. Such diseases include but unlimited to; immune disorders like Goodpasture’s syndrome. Additionally, more diseases include acute inflammation of the kidney, kidney, plasma cancer, intravascular hemolysis, and trauma. Therefore, Proteinuria is caused by the presence of proteins in urine, resulting from kidney disease and other medical conditions.



Questions 4: What is Wilms Tumor, and What Cellular Component Are Involved

A wild tumor is a form of kidney cancer that primarily develops in children. Notably, almost all cases of Wilms tumor are diagnosed at the early age of childhood. Typically, the condition is characterized by noticeable abdominal swelling in children. Besides abdominal swelling as a noticeable symptom, Wilms tumor can also be characterized by a mass in the kidney that can be felt upon physical examination. Therefore, Wilms tumor is a cancerous condition caused by immature kidney cells, which hence collect into a mass that grows out of control and develops into a tumor in the kidney.

Notably, Wilms tumor affects numerous cellular components that result in the general cancerous condition. One of the cellular components that are involved in the Wilms tumor is the blastemal cellular component. These are malignant cells derived from embryonal cells and matures into epithelial cells in the renal tubules (Klijanienko, 2018). As such, Wilms tumor results in undifferentiated blastemal components – small blue cell tumor. Another cellular component of Wilms tumor is epithelial cell components. Cancer affects early differentiation. The heterogeneous differentiation within Wilms’ epithelial components includes the primitive, squamous, and mucinous epithelial (Popov, Sebire & Vujanic, 2016). Moreover, another cellular component of Wilms tumor is the stromal component. This particular cellular component includes densely packed undifferentiated mesenchymal cells or loose cellular myxoid cells.   





Klijanienko, J. (2018). Blastemal Tumors. In Small Volume Biopsy in Pediatric Tumors (pp. 171-204). Springer, Cham.

Popov, S. D., Sebire, N. J., & Vujanic, G. M. (2016). Wilms’ Tumor–Histology and Differential Diagnosis.

Chew, B. (2020). The Glomerulus. Retrieved 31 March 2021, from https://teachmephysiology.com/urinary-system/nephron/glomerulus/












Appendix A:

Communication Plan for an Inpatient Unit to Evaluate the Impact of Transformational Leadership Style Compared to Other Leader Styles such as Bureaucratic and Laissez-Faire Leadership in Nurse Engagement, Retention, and Team Member Satisfaction Over the Course of One Year

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