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    Week 6: A Nurse’s Role in the Systems Development Life Cycle
    While the process of developing and implementing a health information technology system may seem overwhelming at first, the systems development life cycle (SDLC) provides organizations with a framework to deliver efficient and effective information systems. Though the SDLC is a common overarching structure for implementing information systems, it is not a one-size-fits-all process. In fact, there are a multitude of approaches that can be used to guide the systems development life cycle. The SDLC approach that is most appropriate for a particular organization will be highly contextual and subject to organization-specific differences.

    This week prompts you to analyze the process of selecting an appropriate health information technology and then evaluate techniques that positively impact the steps of the systems development life cycle in an EHR implementation. You also determine what barriers might occur at each stage and how these could be overcome.
    Learning Objectives
    Students will:
    Analyze how a nurse can contribute to each stage of the systems development life cycle
    Photo Credit: Jose Luis Pelaez Inc]/[Brand X Pictures]/Getty ImagesCredit
    Learning Resources
    Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus.
    Required Readings
    McGonigle, D., & Mastrian, K. G. (2018). Nursing informatics and the foundation of knowledge (4th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning.
    Chapter 9, “Systems Development Life Cycle: Nursing Informatics and Organizational Decision Making”
    This chapter explains the systems development life cycle and explores various methods of applying it. The chapter also examines the importance of interoperability in implementing HITECH.

    Chapter 10, “Administrative Information Systems”
    This chapter provides an overview of agency-based health information systems. The text also details how administrators can use core business systems in their practice.
    Boswell, R. A. (2011). A physician group’s movement toward electronic health records: A case study using the transtheoretical model for organizational change. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 63(2), 138–148.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

    The authors of this article present a case study on an EHR implementation in a multispecialty physician group. The case study attempts to determine actions that promote successful EHR implementation and the pros and cons of implementation.
    Hsiao, J., Chang, H., & Chen, R. (2011).A study of factors affecting acceptance of hospital information systems: A nursing perspective. Journal of Nursing Research, 19(2), 150–160.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

    The focus of this article is to determine what factors are most important in predicting the acceptance of new health information technology. The results of the study indicated that self-efficacy, top management support, and the quality of information retrieved are the most important determinants of the willingness of nurses to adopt and use a new technology.
    Kelley, T. F., Brandon, D. H., & Docherty, S. L. (2011). Electronic nursing documentation as a strategy to improve quality of patient care. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 43(2), 154–162.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

    This article summarizes a literature review of the relationship between electronic health records (EHRs) and quality of patient care. The article identifies deficiencies in existing research regarding the daily interactions of nurses, patients, and electronic documentation, and it provides a comparison between electronic and paper-based documentation and its effect on quality of care.
    Nurse leaders discuss the nurse’s role in driving technology decisions. (2010). Virginia Nurses Today, 18(1), 8–9.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

    This article summarizes a roundtable held with a number of nursing executives to discuss the role nurses should take in the selection and adoption of new technologies for health care. The executives concluded that the nurses’ goals should be to select technology that will further their ability to provide safe, quality care to their patients.
    Page, D. (2011). Turning nurses into health IT superusers. Hospitals & Health Networks, 85(4), 27–28.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

    This article highlights the importance of involving nurses with all phases of the decision and implementation process surrounding new health information technology. The author stresses the importance of communication in the process as well as defining success.
    Swab, J., & Ciotti, V. (2010). What to consider when purchasing an EHR system. hfm(Healthcare Financial Management), 64(5), 38–41.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

    In this article, recommendations are given for purchasing health information technology. These include selecting the appropriate vendor, carefully considering the cost of both new equipment and personnel, and involving clinicians in decisions.
    Required Media
    Laureate Education (Producer). (2012g). Systems development life cycle. Baltimore, MD: Author.

    The systems development life cycle (SLDC) provides a framework for all of the steps necessary to implementing a new technology or process within an organization. This video explains the SDLC and how it is used in the health care field.
    Optional Resources
    Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2005). A toolkit for redesign in health care. Retrieved from https://healthit.ahrq.gov/health-it-tools-and-resources/evaluation-resources/health-it-evaluation-toolkit-and-evaluation-measures-quick-reference

    This website supplies strategies for reconfiguring and transforming a hospital’s care processes. The text breaks down the redesign process into a series of steps.
    Discussion: Successful Implementation of Electronic Health Information Technology
    Since the inception of the HITECH Act, health organizations have faced increased pressure to update their health information technology (HIT) resources. As discussed last week, many believe that the increased use of electronic health records and the quick and efficient communication afforded by HIT can lead to improved quality of patient care. Yet there are significant costs associated with implementing such systems. What can organizations do to ensure that the correct system is selected and that the system will be appropriate for those required to use it? Who should be involved in those decisions?
    This week introduces the systems development life cycle and discusses how it can guide an organization through the complexities of adopting a new HIT system. In this Discussion, you are asked to consider the role of nurses in the SDLC process.
    To prepare:
    Review the steps of the systems development life cycle.
    Think about your own organization, or one with which you are familiar, and the steps the organization goes through when purchasing and implementing a new HIT system.
    Consider what a nurse could contribute to decisions made at each stage when planning for new health information technology. What might be the consequences of not involving nurses?
    Reflect on your own experiences with your organization selecting and implementing new technology. As an end user, do you feel you had any input in the selection or and planning of the new HIT system?


Subject Nursing Pages 3 Style APA


Nurse’s Role Systems Development Life Cycle

Nurses, like all other healthcare stakeholders, should be involved in all stages of the system development cycle (SDLC). This includes all the stages from the beginning to the end for the purpose of bringing the system into the care of all patients. It is important that the Waterfall Model is applied to dividing breaking down the project in six phases (McMurtrey, 2013). These involve feasibility, analysis, designing, implementation, testing, and maintenance. Each step requires the involvement of a nurse professional since they are the pioneer to health care.

Consequences of Failing to Involve Nurses in the Planning of New HIT system

Major issues are bound to arise if the nurses are not involved in the development of this life cycle. For instance, resistance to change can be experienced if they do not take part in the feasible stage (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2018). The nurses may be of the opinion that the best resources may not be provided by the system in a good time frame. Failure to involve the nurses in the analysis phase may make the nurses feel that the needs of the patient will not be fully met by the system, therefore, may not support its use in patient care. Failure to involve the nurses in the design phase will promote increased cost and encourage misuse of the system hence fail to meet the clinical needs of the working environment (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2018). Nurses should play an important function in the implementation phase since lack of their input will cause staff intimidation that may be experienced in an informal introduction. Not involving the nurses in the testing phase contributes to Go-Live delays associated with unsatisfactory functioning (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2018). The input of a nursing professional is necessary for the maintenance stage. If a nurse is left out, he or she may start resisting managers or higher up’s suggestions.

My Experience as End-User in the New Health Information System

As an end user, I felt that I was fully involved in the selection and planning of a new health information system for my organization. For example, I interviewed the system users and consulted with support personnel. I assisted in addressing the challenges of the existing system and providing specific proposals to help in its improvement. I played a role in developing and implementing new hardware, communications, security issues, programming, operating systems, and new hardware. I assisted in training users of the system regarding all aspects of performance. I also played a role in providing testing procedures so as to make appropriate adjustments required for the system. I took part in the maintenance processes by offering training that would keep the users of the system up-to-date in relation to the latest procedures and modifications. As a nurse, my experiences prove that we are vital stakeholders and end users and our input are important during the selection of an efficient system and planning of resources for new health information technology. 





McGonigle, D., & Mastrian, K. (Eds.). (2018). Nursing informatics and the foundation of knowledge. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

McMurtrey, M. (2013). A case study of the application of the systems development life cycle (sdlc) in 21st century health care: Something old, something new? Journal of the Southern Association for Information Systems1(1).











Appendix A:

Communication Plan for an Inpatient Unit to Evaluate the Impact of Transformational Leadership Style Compared to Other Leader Styles such as Bureaucratic and Laissez-Faire Leadership in Nurse Engagement, Retention, and Team Member Satisfaction Over the Course of One Year

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