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    Health and Wellness – PHED-2050-07W
    Author: Anspaugh
    Edition: 8th
    ISBN: 9780078022500

    Module 6, Activity 2

    What are gynoid and android obesity? Which is a greater health risk and why?

    What evidence exists to support the claim that obesity in US children, adolescents, and adults is epidemic?
    100 plus words




Subject Nursing Pages 3 Style APA


Obesity in US Children, Adults and Adolescents

Obesity is a general state of overweight, whereby the body mass index is greater than 30. Two major classes of obesity exist; gynoid and android (Wilkund 4360). Android obesity is obesity where adipose deposition around the abdomen predominates and is further linked to increased heart disease and insulin resistance (Yusuf 1640). Gynoid, on the other hand, has been linked to protection against cardiovascular diseases (McCarty 173). Android ‘fat’ has been thought to be metabolically active, further leading to dysmetabolism of fatty acids and increased influx of free fatty acids into the splanchnic circulation, paving the way for atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. Additionally, visceral fat has been shown to release greater quantities of pro-inflammatory cytokines than gynoid ‘fat’ and this has been postulated to cause insulin resistance. Overally then, android fat has more health hazards when compared to gynoid.

In the US, obesity is currently a silent epidemic affecting all groups from adolescents, adults and even children at 35% for adults and 18%-49% for children (Hruby 673) and with dire projections pointing to over 85 percent of adults being overweight by 2030 (Tanko 1626). The prevalence of obesity amongst adults and children has been marked by increase of obesity associated diseases such as ischemic heart disease, hypertension and other associated heart and vascular conditions (Hruby 673). The increased prevalence of risk factors across all ages, and the reduction in the preventative measures clearly indicate that obesity is an epidemic through adults, adolescents and even children.



Hruby, Adela  and Hu. “The Epidemiology of Obesity: A Big Picture”. Pharmacoeconomics 33(2015): 673–689.

McCarty, MF. “A paradox resolved: the postpandrial model of insulin resistance explains why gynoid adiposity appears to be protective”. Med Hypothesis 61 (2003):173-176

Tanko, LB et al. “Peripheral adiposity exhibits an independent dominant antiatherogenic effect in elderly women”. Circulation 107 (2003):1626-1631.

Wiklund, Peder et al. “Abdominal and Gynoid Fat Mass Are Associated with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Men and Women”. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 93.11, (2008): 4360–4366

Yusuf, S et al. “Obesity and the risk of myocardial infarction in 27000 participants from 2 countries: a case control study”. Lancet 366 (2005):1640-1649













Appendix A:

Communication Plan for an Inpatient Unit to Evaluate the Impact of Transformational Leadership Style Compared to Other Leader Styles such as Bureaucratic and Laissez-Faire Leadership in Nurse Engagement, Retention, and Team Member Satisfaction Over the Course of One Year

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