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  1. Organisational Behaviour (MNG82210)

    Assignment 1 Guidelines and Marking Criteria



    Title:                     Assignment 1 – Literature Review

    Marks: 30 (which is 30% of the unit grade)

    Due:                      Prior to 11:00pm on Monday 23rd November (week 6), 2015.

    Task:                      Undertake a Literature Review (max 1500 words) on ‘the Dimensions and Antecedents of Organisational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB)’. The review is to focus solely on refereed academic publications (i.e. journal articles).

    Purpose:              As students of Organisational Behaviour it is important that you are able to effectively identify, collate and disseminate credible information on a range of issues that have strong theoretical and/or practical relevance to the field. Such information will often provide the basis for effective planning and decision-making.

    Format:                The single document submitted for this assignment is to contain the following components and formatting features:

    1. Assignment ‘Coversheet’ (document is available in the Assignment file on Blackboard).
    2. Assignment ‘Coverpage’ identifying the unit name & code, assignment title, student name & ID, and the report word count (note: Reference List content is not included in this count).
    3. Content; i.e. your Literature Review (maximum of 1500 words).
      1. The main heading will be ‘Literature Review’ and thereafter you can include any subheadings that might help to effectively structure the discussion. No Table of Contents is required.
      2. Both in-text and reference list skills must be demonstrated (use the Harvard Referencing style).
    • The report is to include a minimum of six distinct references from academic journals. You may cite your textbook and sources identified in it but they do not contribute towards the reference count. Quoting is not permitted. Paraphrase the information you obtain from your various sources.
    1. Reference List.

    Adopt the following formatting features for the paper:

    • Apply page numbers. Page 1 comes after your coverpage.
    • Font style: Times New Roman, 12pt, justified, 1½ line spacing.
    • Margins – top and bottom to be 2.54cm. Left and right to be 2.54cm. No page boarders.
    • Spelling – if using a Microsoft package, specify Australian English language/grammar when running your spell-check.
    • Writing and grammar must conform to the standards of a professional report.


    Submitting:        All assignments are to be submitted through ‘Turn-it-in,’ which can be accessed from the ‘Assignment 1’ folder on Blackboard. The link will be activated in week 1 and you can submit the assignment any time up to the due date.

    The file you submit should be labelled in the following manner:

    Surname, initial, student code, MNG82001, asmt 1

    For example – Gillett, P, 012345, MNG82001, asmt 1


    Feedback:           Students who submit their report by the due date will receive feedback within 2 weeks.

    Marking Criteria:

    A.    Written communication

    (weight = 25% of marks)



    1)      Unsatisfactory. The writing is ineffective due to numerous spelling and/or grammatical errors.

    2)      Pass. Proof-read the final document to identify and correct minor errors in spelling and grammar. Plan for and undertake additional drafts as this will help to improve the quality of your written work.

    3)      Credit. A good standard of writing is provided (no spelling errors), however there is room for improvement in terms of higher-order writing skills (e.g. vocabulary and sentence structure). Work on developing the logic within your discussion.

    4)      Distinction. Higher-order writing skills are evident in parts. Greater consistency will improve the overall quality of your work.

    5)      HD. The quality of writing in the report is exceptional. Well done.

    B.     Content

    (weight = 25% of marks)


    1)      Unsatisfactory. The description of OCB and its features are largely incorrect.

    2)      Pass. The review reflects a basic understanding of OCB. Extending the scope of the review would help to demonstrate a deeper level of knowledge.

    3)      Credit. The review scope is sufficiently broad and a good understanding of OCB is evident in most parts. However there is at least one inaccuracy or one area of uncertainty which needs to be re-examined.

    4)      Distinction. The review reflects an accurate understanding of OCB, its dimensions and antecedents. Questions which might be considered in future OCB studies are not clearly presented or justified.

    5)      HD. The review reflects an extremely strong understanding OCB, its dimensions and antecedents. The discussion also clearly identifies key questions for future OCB researchers to address.

    C.    Use of academic Sources

    (weight = 25% of marks)


    1)      Unsatisfactory. Information attributed to academic sources makes no meaningful contribution to the discussion.

    2)      Pass. Information from academic sources are relevant to the review however too often it is presented as isolated/individual statements. Work on providing a fuller discussion of the source information and/or using multiple sources to support a particular point of view.

    3)      Credit. Information from academic sources are relevant to the review however too much of it is simply replicated from the original source. Work on developing your paraphrasing skills by contextualising the information; i.e. explicitly link it to the focus of your discussion. 

    4)      Distinction. Information from academic sources are effectively weaved into the discussion, thereby helping to clearly describe OCB, it dimensions and attributes.

    5)      HD. In addition to the Distinction qualities, a strong effort has also been made to cite empirical research findings that support and complement the discussion.   

    D.    Referencing

     (weight = 12.5% of marks)


    1)      Unsatisfactory. The required number and type of sources are not provided or there is no effort to correctly reference those that are.

    2)      Pass. Some effort has been made to acknowledge the sources of information but the required referencing style has not been adopted.

    3)      Credits. There are several notable errors with the referencing style

    4)      Distinction. There are several minor errors with the referencing style.

    5)      HD. Correct referencing style is demonstrated throughout the report.

    E.     Features and Formatting

     (weight = 12.5% of marks)



    1)      Unsatisfactory. The assignment document is unprofessionally presented (refer to the assignment guidelines).

    2)      Pass. A number of formatting style features are missing which should have been picked up in the final proof-read.

    3)      Credit. Two formatting style features are missing.

    4)      Distinction. One formatting style feature is missing.

    5)      HD. The assignment document adopts all the required formatting features and is professionally presented. 








Subject  Business Pages 10 Style APA


The Dimensions and Antecedents of Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB)


Managing people in a work setting is as critical as the finances are to its success. An organizations success is dependent on a lot more than the company’s financial strength. The way employees interact; the managerial styles and job commitment influence the company’s growth either positively or negatively. Organizational citizenship behavior seeks to understand: what factors affect employee performance, in what ways they do, why the employees behave the way they do and leadership potential in the employees. The main aim of studying organizational citizenship behavior is to increase both the group and individual employee performance and productivity. The study aims to highlight areas of concern and enhance productivity of the workforce by attempting to find solutions and prevent issues that affect individual and group production. People management can be both enjoyable and technically complex depending on their behavior. Whereas some work to the attainment of the organizations goals, some go contrary to it. The study of organizational behavior attempts to explain such contrasts in their behavior. It also outlines how management can benefit through designing and implementing effective organizational behavior principles and insights. 

Definitions and nature of study

Based on research and scientific data, organizational citizenship behavior can be explained as the logical study of how groups and individuals think and react in an organizational setting with biasness to acts of good intent to fellow workers and the organization (Wienclaw, 2015).  Wienclaw further explains that Organizational citizenship behavior is multidiscipline in nature and draws its results not just from its own research but goes beyond to other disciplines drawing insights that would be beneficial to the organization. There is need to go beyond the easily visible aspects of the organization but additionally strive to understand the cultures in order to explain some behaviors and the processes that make the organization function the way it does. Organization citizenship behavior (OCB) looks into the reasons as to why some individuals voluntarily assist their co-workers without the expectation of a reward or recognition to the benefit of the organization (Organ, 1995). It is ideally the best way an organization can identify leadership and potential leaders. People can show OCB through acts such: as focusing on the future by not focusing on the immediate reward to their acts but the potential the kind act holds to their future growth in the company, another way is being their organizations representative both while at work and away from work. The workforce’ dedication is an indispensable cog in the growth and expansion of an organization. This influences citizenship behavioral tendencies replicated in their output (Paile, P Boiral, O & Chen, Y (2013).There are approximately 30 different types and forms of organizational citizenship behavior and divided into different taxonomic groups (Organ 1995).  One of the most common taxonomic groups was designed by Organ. It included facets such as altruism, sportsmanship, and civic virtue, altruism, courtesy, cheerleading and peacekeeping.

According to (Konovorsky 1994), when a supervisor treats a fellow staff member in a good way and with fairness, then the same can easily reciprocated to him and other fellow workers bringing about social exchange. Just like in any other form of exchange, there is an expectation that the good deed will be reciprocated in the future (Wienclaw 2015). It should however be noted that some leadership styles affect the social aspect of OCB in that some leaders motivate their teams to be self sufficient and should not rely on others for help but rather strive to solve it independently, this makes the employee less reliant to people and as such not experience this aspect of organizational citizenship behavior.

Relational exchange from the top, to the middle and lower level management, hugely influence the staff’s innovative ability. It also influences how much time they dedicate to projects and tasks completion (Podsakoff et al. 2000). As compared to individuals with no social relationship within their work system, those that have friendly departmental heads find it easy to share their ideas, their likes and dislikes and seek to find solutions to underlying problems in their organization. This therefore calls for modesty in handling juniors at any level in the organization, allowing constructive criticism and developing the right talent when noticed. Through observing, the some of these citizenship behaviors great potential can be identified, trained and retained to the greater good of the organization (Podsakoff et al. 2000). There is a need to create a supportive environment for the workforce. This will enhance the staff’s ability to show their citizenship towards each other and the organization in general. Unique or outstanding individuals at various levels in the organization should be in time rewarded


Impact of Organizational Citizenship

The impact of Organizational citizenship behavior is what builds up a company’s growth and reputation (Allen 1998). The application of voluntary assistance in any capacity in an organization builds a unique bond, a bond driven by, the desire of the individuals or group to succeed, grow, or rise in performance.

With many organizations across the globe preferring performance contracting, the effect of OCB has led to the realization of its impact in the individuals who pursue it (Magdalene 2014). She further explains that, research conducted shows that there is a link towards personal growth hierarchically in organizations because of practicing organizational citizenship. Helping has largely been used as a mark in performance evaluation and promotion in organizations.

An Organizations growth and expansion is similarly bound by, how many the individuals within practice citizenship behaviors individually and as a group. Organizations with stable policies and that support their staff easily grow and expand as compared to those that limit talent and are have bottleneck leadership practices. Mainly unit level performances clearly show this, in departments with good understanding of each other and courtesy and unity, growth is inevitable (Magdalene 2014).     

 Conclusion and limitations of OCB

 There are however limitations to practicing some facets of the organizational citizenship behavior. Whereas it is good to offer help, OCB hinders critical thinking as they easily see help in each other.  The fact that one easily finds solution in his colleague is as much a disadvantage as it is an advantage. Critical thinking should be allowed as it brings about the individuals creative ability in times of need. There is additionally the risk of employees serving to impress in order to attain promotions and find favor in the eyes of the managers and the employees. This is a risk because if OCB is done with intention of seeking favors and the individual ends up getting promoted or rewarded, then there is likelihood of the acts of OCB ending with the reward or promotion (Bolino and Turnley 2003). There is need therefore for the leadership to be cautious and careful with any move they make as a result of OCB.   The motivation behind an employee’s act of kindness can only be revealed with time and how consistently the act is done. Some employees may also show organizational citizenship behavior when the superiors are around or focusing on them, this acting out may unfairly be used in promotion or recommendation leaving out people who deserve the awards and promotions (Bolino and Turnley 2003)

This though cannot be compared with the benefits of OCB. Managers for instance benefit from the efficiency it creates when employees focus more on planning and other long term issues that serves to improve efficiency and hence productivity to the benefit of the organization (Turnipseed and Rassuli 2005).

Summary and Research Findings

The world and the human race need individuals who act without the thought of a reward. All the facets of organizational citizenship behavior are traits that each employer and employee longs for. It is therefore important that organizations work towards making possible the attainment of such factors as courtesy, sportsmanship, among others. It is also clearly that organizations that allow expression of such virtues grow and spread faster than those that do not (Podsakoff 2009).

It should however be noted that even though these virtues are admirable, they are not easily seen unless the managers pay attention to their staff. Problem solving should be encouraged in the organization as it brings about the creative ability of the staff. When such individuals get noticed, then they should be compensated through remuneration and or promoted to a higher level (Ghorbanifar & Azma 2014)  . This will not only motivate the rest but also show the top leadership support for individuals who stand out. There is also the fact these facts mainly depend on top leadership passing them on to the junior ones, this calls for the top leadership, managers and supervisors to be particularly keen on how they handle their juniors the. It is the way they are handled that they will react, if done positively, they will reciprocate positively. If done negatively they will do the same (Van Scotter, Motowidlo and Cross 2000). Training is appropriate to bring about some citizenship behaviors and potential in some employees. Through training and watchful eyes of their superiors, outstanding individuals that can spur the growth of various institutions are identified and nurtured for the future of the organization. People in the senior management positions should also be frequently trained to equip them with required to spot individuals with outstanding abilities.




Allen, D & Rush, C 1998, ‘the effects of organizational citizenship behavior on performance judgments: A field study and a laboratory experiment’. Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol 83(2), Apr 1998, 247-260


Bolino, C & Turnley, H 2003, ‘Going the extra mile: Cultivating and managing employee citizenship behavior’. Academy of Management Executive, 17, 60-71


Ghorbanifar, M, & Azma, F.(2014). Workplace spirituality and organizational citizenship behavior: Evidence from banking industry. Management Science Letters, 4(8), 1685-1692.


Organ, D. W & Ryan, K 1995, ‘A meta-analytic review of attitudinal and dispositional predictors of organizational citizenship behavior’. Personnel Psychology, 48, 775-802


Paile, P, Boiral, O., & Chen, Y. (2013), Linking environmental management practices and organizational citizenship behavior for the environment: a social exchange perspective. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24(18), 3552-3575.


Turnipseed, L & Rassuli, A. 2005, ‘explaining organizational citizenship behavior: a critical review of the social exchange perspective’. British Journal of Management, 16, 231-244.


Podsakoff, NP, Whiting, SW, Podsakoff, PM, & Blume, BD 2009, ‘Individual- and organizational-level consequences of organizational citizenship behaviors: A metaanalysis’. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(1), 122-141. Doi: 10.1037/a0013079


Podsakoff, PM, Mackenzie, SB, Paine, JB, & Bachrach, DG 2000, ‘Organizational citizenship behaviors: A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research’. Journal of Management, 26(3), 513-563. Doi 10.1177/014920630002600307


Van Scotter, JR, Motowidlo, SJ, & Cross, TC 2000, ‘Effects of task performance and contextual performance on systemic rewards’. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(4), 526-535. Doi: 10.1037//0021-9010.85

Wienclaw, R & Ruth A 2015, Organizational behavior online edition





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