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    Explain the risk factors for osteoporosis. What can a nurse do to help manage this health condition to restore the patient to optimal health?  



Subject Nursing Pages 4 Style APA


Osteoporosis, Its Associated Risk Factors, and Remedial Measures

Osteoporosis refers to a condition characterized by bone tissue deterioration, low bone mass, and bone microarchitecture interruption: it can result in compromised bone strength and a rise in a person’s risk of fractures (Sözen et al., 2017). Those with the osteoporosis condition have weaker and porous bones, particularly in the spinal vertebrae, hip, and some peripheral joints, like wrists (Costa et al., 2016). Mineral storage is a component of bone structural integrity. Nonetheless, with time, minerals are lost, making bones to be weaker, thinner, and susceptible to fractures (Bijelic et al., 2017). There are a number of risk factors associated with osteoporosis, including: thin build, early menopause, obesity, underweight, acidosis, low dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium, increased age, pale, fair skin, late menarche, nullparity, family history, Caucasian, female, small stature, high intake of caffeine, sedentary lifestyle, too much alcohol intake, kidney or liver disease, smoker, and rheumatoid arthritis.

With the pains and limitations linked with musculoskeletal illnesses, a number of patients mar experience depressed moods or depression when tackling the changes that they have to undergo on a daily basis (Holm et al., 2016). Suitable mental health evaluations are needed to give such patients with resources needed and adequate support. Similarly, family and friends’ support is vital for the osteoporosis patients as they adjust to nuances of the disease.

To address patients with osteoporosis, nurses can develop ways of evaluating pain in the patients and discussing the significance of pain management with the osteoporosis patients to manage the patients’ conditions. When treatment recommendations require rest or leisure, it is important that nurses are informed that some osteoporosis patients may fail to observe the recommendations. From the cultural standpoint, this refusal may be associated with the need to provide for their families notwithstanding their illness or injury (Pouresmaeili et al., 2018).  Nurses can also convey the message of hope to the patients that the condition is curable and that by observing the recommendations, they will eventually be able to provide efficiently for their families.

Similarly, patients living with musculoskeletal illnesses require patients’ teaching concerning a well-balanced diet with various vegetables and fruits and low-fat dairy products and lean protein diets (Sözen et al., 2017). Nurses can, therefore, recommend diets that would aid the patients’ fight against inflammation linked to musculoskeletal illness. Using seasonings, like turmeric, ginger, garlic, cayenne, and cinnamon, have anti-inflammatory impacts (Lian et al., 2017). Foods rich in omega 3 fatty acids, like fish, may assist in delaying osteoarthritis and minimize inflammation (Bijelic et al., 2017). Supplements, like phosphorous, chondroitin, glucosamine, magnesium, and calcium are all essential to patients with musculoskeletal illness (Pouresmaeili et al., 2018). Moderate exercise, like swimming, yoga, walking, or cycling, would also be recommended by nurses to help mitigate the osteoporosis condition. Osteoporosis patients already exhibiting pain ought to have this regulated before starting exercises, and then slowly building. Collaboration between occupational and physical therapists will offer osteoporosis patients with appropriate measures to help them build strength as well as endurance.


Bijelic, R., Milicevic, S., & Balaban, J. (2017). Risk Factors for Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Women. Medical archives (Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina)71(1), 25–28. https://doi.org/10.5455/medarh.2017.71.25-28

Costa, A. L., da Silva, M. A., Brito, L. M., Nascimento, A. C., do Carmo Lacerda Barbosa, M., Batista, J. E., de Barros Bezerra, G. F., De Castro Viana, G. M., Filho, W. E., Vidal, F. C., & Nascimento, M. (2016). Osteoporosis in primary care: an opportunity to approach risk factors. Revista brasileira de reumatologia56(2), 111–116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rbre.2015.07.014

Holm, J. P., Hyldstrup, L., & Jensen, J. E. B. (2016). Time trends in osteoporosis risk factor profiles: a comparative analysis of risk factors, comorbidities, and medications over twelve years. Endocrine, 54241–255. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12020-016-0987-5

Lian, X. L., Zhang, Y. P., Li, X., Jing, L. D., Cairang, Z. M., & Gou, J. Q. (2017). Exploration on the relationship between the elderly osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease risk factors. European review for medical and pharmacological sciences21(19), 4386–4390.

Pouresmaeili, F., Kamalidehghan, B., Kamarehei, M., & Goh, Y. M. (2018). A comprehensive overview on osteoporosis and its risk factors. Therapeutics and clinical risk management14, 2029–2049. https://doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S138000

Sözen, T., Özışık, L., & Başaran, N. Ç. (2017). An overview and management of osteoporosis. European journal of rheumatology4(1), 46–56. https://doi.org/10.5152/eurjrheum.2016.048





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