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  1. Pathophysiology of Kidneys


    Discuss the Pathophysiology of Kidneys


Subject Nursing Pages 3 Style APA


Pathophysiology of Kidneys

Kidney stones or renal calculi are a cluster of crystals enclosed in a matrix that develops in the kidneys. Some common kidney stones symptoms include; pain in the abdomen associated with nausea, blood in the urine, and pain while urinating. The essay discusses how kidney stones are formed and how to prevent them.

Kidney stones are classified into five groups according to the types of crystals they contain; calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, Calcium struvite, uric acid, and cysteine. The most common kidney stone is the calcium oxalate made from oxalate- a component found in green, leafy vegetables-combined with calcium (Marquette, C. 2009). Calcium phosphate stones develop from too much calcium in the urine. Calcium struvite type is formed by bacteria in the urinary tract and is more common in women than in men. Uric acid stones form when uric acid levels are high in the urine, while cysteine stones are caused by a disorder called cystinuria, where cystin leaks into the urine and kidney stones are formed.

Kidney stones are formed from nucleation, where ions such as calcium and oxalate join together to form a solid crystal nidus. Nucleation is divided into two; homogeneous nucleation and heterogeneous nucleation. In homogeneous nucleation, crystals are formed around the nucleus with the same composition. In contrast, heterogeneous nucleation crystals of different compositions are formed around the nucleus, and organic materials such as cell debris can be deposited between the crystals as a matrix. The crystals travel down to the nephron, where they are deposited at the renal papilla and grow by sticking together to form large aggregates. Simultaneously, the new stones can be left in the kidneys, where they can grow and later travel into the ureter.

Large kidney stones require percutaneous and endoscopy removal. Drinking lots of water and lemonade intake can help prevent kidney stones by flushing out minerals that can form stones. Avoiding stone-promoting foods such as dietary sodium and oxalate can help treat recurring kidney stones (Esnaasharan et al., 2020). Eating less animal protein, such as meat, can help prevent uric acid kidney stones. Avoiding vitamin C supplements and specific medication such as Ephedrine helps prevent kidney stones as they promote the stones’ growth and formation.

Natural remedies for degrading kidney stones include drinking lots of water that helps flash out the stones. Lemon juice is beneficial in degrading kidney stones as it breaks small stones. Drinking basil juice and apple cider vinegar with acetic acid helps break down the kidney stones and reduces abdominal pain caused by the kidney stones. Wheatgrass juice has also been found to increase urine flow to help pass the stones as it contains vital nutrients that help clean the kidneys.

In summary, kidney stones are classified into five groups according to the type of crystal they have, and calcium oxalate is the most common type. Kidney stones are formed through nucleation, which is divided into homogeneous nucleation and heterogeneous nucleation. The stones can be effectively managed by diet and medication. There are also natural remedies such as drinking lemon juices that help degrade kidney stones.




 Esnaasharan, F., Alizadeh, M., Ayremlou, P., & Zarrin, R. (2020). A positive effect of pH and volume of fluid intake on kidney stones in adult men. Nutrition & Food Science.

Marquette, C. (2009). Health & Nutrition. Retrieved March 30, 2021, from
















Appendix A:

Communication Plan for an Inpatient Unit to Evaluate the Impact of Transformational Leadership Style Compared to Other Leader Styles such as Bureaucratic and Laissez-Faire Leadership in Nurse Engagement, Retention, and Team Member Satisfaction Over the Course of One Year

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