Compare/contrast current political challenges confronting Iran, Turkey, and Egypt while examining their governmental systems. To what extent do these countries share similar historical and cultural experiences? What do you think the future holds for democracy in each country? Consider secularization efforts in all three prior to the rise of the current regimes and how current regimes shape the religious/secular divide.
|Subject||Law and governance||Pages||3||Style||APA|
Political Challenges and Governmental Systems
Political Challenges facing Iran, Turkey and Egypt and their governmental Systems
Iran and Egypt are regarded as the only true nations within the Middle East while the others are only visualized as tribes with flags. The shah was deposed by the Iranians in 1979 and subsequently resulting in the creation of the Islam Republic of Iran. The shah was unwilling to utilize force that was evident under his power. On the contrary, the shah’s opponents did not overlook the use of violence. The Egypt’s authoritarian government was peacefully overthrown in 2011 (Findley, 2010). It is evident that during this time, the military showed its unwillingness to intervene in the process. In the world today, the Iranians have engaged in a peaceful demonstration against their political regime which has responded indiscriminately to intimidation and violence to repress their political expression right.
Egypt’s government operated under the mantra of observing stability, a plea to the members of the middle class’ alleged inclination for maintaining order and consistency notwithstanding expected dangers from extremist Islam (Masters, 2013). On the contrary, In Iran, a plea was made to ensure the maintenance of the revolution’s independence in the events of the alleged threats arising from external powers and to ensure that the resistance model was further extended into the country. Unlike in the case of Egypt and Iran, it is evident that Turkey has relied on the use of unilateral extensive power exercised under the presidential system. As a result, meeting societal demands have remained to be a challenge. Despite the noted difference between Iran and Egypt, it is a commonality that in both countries, the youth are placed at the front of the fight to secure change. Furthermore, it is evident that both struggles lack a leader and coordinated using bottom-up approach. Moreover, in both cases, the movements are focused on guaranteeing that the rights and dignity of the people are observed through a desire of being effectively treated rather than promoting a radical political agenda (Masters, 2013).
Historical and Cultural Experiences
Turkey, Egypt and Iran share the same cultural and historical experiences largely. For instance, it is evident that the three cultures were Islamized from the seventh to the 11th century. However, after a brief period of being members of the same Islamic sect, the paths of the countries were later diversified during the 16th century (Masters, 2013). The three countries were neighbors to strong western nations who were further integrated within the world’s economy during the same time. However, the three nations did not experience any form of direct colonization. Nevertheless, political suppression became evident during their modern times. Moreover, both states transformed from monarchy and embraced constitutionalism within the similar periods.
Democracy and the Future
I think that that the future holds a negative view for democracy in Iran. Notably, nations such as the US have established foreign policies intended towards ensuring that an alliance is forged with the emerging middle-class members in the region. For instance, it is evident that two decades before the 1979 Islamic revolution, the US policy makers systemically allocated their efforts towards convincing the Shah that sharing power with the middle class will be effective in democratizing the nation (Findley, 2010). However, the Shah turned down this offer, thus killing any hopes of the Iran’s future democratization.
Similarly, Turkey fails to show a positive outlook when it comes to democratization. This is because the political situation in the region is less likely to record an improvement within the short term. The increasing presidential power is one of the factors, which suggest that Turkey will not be a democratic state anytime soon. Notably, the government has relied on authoritarian form of leadership whereby it interferes with the lives of the citizens. Moreover, the government has also limited the freedom of the press and the ability of the people to express themselves (Kirişci & Sloat, 2017). Furthermore, Turkey is featured by a weak opposition defined with a conservative religious base composed of 35% of the government. The repressive policies established by the president, alongside the tight control of the media have left the members of the opposition suffering from internal weakness. In addition, this has hindered them from promoting their policies to establish a leveled playing field that could be effective for the region’s democratization (Kirişci & Sloat, 2017). This shows that the current regime has negatively shaped the region’s religious divide through inequality.
Egypt records a positive outlook when it comes to democratization. Evidently, the region has experienced the passage of new protest laws as well as those governing the act of jailing liberal activists which suggest that the region is likely to reconsolidate its control and power over the public sphere and the civil society. Moreover, the consolidation between the Brotherhood and the military is evident through the proposed constitutional referendum. This supports a linkage in democratic politics and the religious politics future in the region.
Findley, C. V. (2010). Turkey, Islam, nationalism, and modernity: A history, 1789-2007. ProQuest Ebook Central
Kirişci, K., & Sloat, A. (2017). The rise and fall of liberal democracy in Turkey: Implications for the West. Foreign Policy
Masters, B. (2013). The Arabs of the Ottoman Empire, 1516–1918: A social and cultural history. ProQuest Ebook Central