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    The proper implementation of policy that addresses population health issues frequently can stimulate change in individual behaviors. Consider, for example, cigarette smoking. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation reported that the number of adults living in smoke-free homes increased from 43% in 1992 to 79% in 2007 (RWJF, 2009). During that time period, many states were adopting the Indoor Clean Air Act and prohibiting smoking in public places. These actions may have made cigarette smoking less socially acceptable, thus encouraging many adult smokers to quit. How can such initiatives affect population health?
    Policy-driven initiatives and government-funded programs increasingly focus on prevention to address potentially problematic behaviors at the population level, thereby reducing costs associated with acute and chronic care. As noted in Week 4, one of the advantages of focusing on population health versus individual health is the ability to concentrate on specific problems that affect large groups. This week, you will examine strategies for addressing behavioral risk factors in a particular population. You will also consider characteristics of effective health care prevention programs.
    Good Reads. (2012). Quotable quotes: Aristotle. Retrieved from http://www.goodreads.com/quotes/show/20103
    Learning Objectives
    Students will:
    Evaluate interventions for addressing at-risk behaviors using the Population-Based Intervention Model
    Photo Credit: [Plume Creative]/[DigitalVision]/Getty Images
    Learning Resources
    Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus.
    Required Readings
    Knickman, J. R., & Kovner, A. R. (Eds.). (2015). Health care delivery in the united states (11th ed.). New York, NY: Springer Publishing.
    Chapter 7, “Health and Behavior” (pp. 119–144)

    This chapter discusses the role of behavior on health and describes behavioral risk factors and potential community-based interventions.
    Backer, E. L., Geske, J. A., McIlvain, H. E., Dodendorf, D. M., & Minier, W. C. (2005). Improving female preventive health care delivery through practice change: An Every Woman Matters study. Journal of the American Board of Family Practice, 18(5), 401–408.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

    This article informs the Assignment as an example of a health program that was not successful. You will conduct additional research on this topic to determine current advocacy programs that have been more effective.
    Hancock, C., & Cooper, K. (2011). A global initiative to tackle chronic disease by changing lifestyles. Primary Health Care, 21(4), 24–26.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

    This article details the efforts of the C3 Collaborating for Health charity. In particular, C3 focuses on minimizing the risk factors of poor dieting, smoking, and low physical activity.
    Schwartz, S. M., Ireland, C., Strecher, V., Nakao, D., Wang, C., & Juarez, D. (2010). The economic value of a wellness and disease prevention program. Population Health Management, 13(6), 309–317.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

    The authors of this article detail a study that sought to determine the economic consequences of a disease prevention program conducted by the Hawaii Medical Service Association.
    Tengland, P. (2010). Health promotion and disease prevention: Logically different conceptions? Health Care Analysis, 18(4), 323–341.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

    This article investigates the differences and causal connections between health promotion and disease prevention.
    Discussion: Addressing Behavioral Risk Factors
    “It is unreasonable to expect that people will change their behavior easily when so many forces in the social, cultural, and physical environment conspire against such change”

    (Kovner and Knickman, p. 139).

    When seeking to lessen behavioral risk factors in different populations, one of the greatest challenges is addressing the systemic issues within the population that enable the risky behavior to occur in the first place. Consider the health risks of school-age children not being immunized or drug users sharing needles. As Dr. Beilenson discussed in the Week 4 media program, these risky behaviors led to increases in individual and population health problems. Thus, when planning health prevention programs, it is important to consider how to effectively address risky behaviors at both the individual and the population level.
    The Discussion this week focuses on the use of the Population-Based Intervention Model outlined in the course text Health Care Delivery in the United States, as well as how this model can be applied to strengthen advocacy programs.
    To prepare:
    Select one of the behavioral risk factors from the Healthy Population 2010 Objectives (listed in Table 7.1 on p. 122 of the course text) that is of interest to you.
    Using the Walden Library and other credible websites, research how this risk factor is affecting your community or state.
    With your selected risk factor in mind, review the information on the Population-Based Intervention Model on pp. 132-137 in the course text, Health Care Delivery in the United States. In particular, focus on the concept of downstream, midstream, and upstream interventions. Consider at least one intervention that could be put into place at each stage.


Subject Drug Abuse Pages 6 Style APA


Week 5: Population Health, Part 2 – Discussion

Substance abuse is a behavioral risk factor of interest to me selected from Healthy People 2010 objectives (Davis, 2000). Substance abuse is a behavioral risk factor that affects the community and the state as whole. First of all, families with a person who has substance abuse disorder may experience unmet developmental needs, economic hardship, impaired attachment, emotional distress, legal problem and at times violence directed to a family member who uses substances. Secondly, children of substance abusers are a great risk of abusing drugs too at some point in time in the future (Lander, Howsare, & Byrne, 2013). The third impact is that intravenous drug users, who share needles, contribute to increased incidences of hepatitis and HIV infections in the community and in the state. About 21% of intravenous drug users have a positive diagnosis of hepatitis B virus whereas 50% of them have hepatitis C virus. The fourth and the fifth, perhaps last, impact of substance abuse is that it increases the cost of health care and increases the contact of community members with the criminal justice system, respectively (Fox, Oliver, & Ellis, 2013).

 Substance abuse behavioral problem can be addressed through the use of the Population-Based Intervention Model. The concept of downstream, midstream, and upstream intervention measure should be put into consideration. Upstream interventions include strengthening of policies and programs, especially those run by government agencies to reduce or eliminate access to or availability of illicit drugs and to promote public education. Besides, social inequalities such as class, ethnicity, race, and/or immigration status should be addressed since they may act as substance abuse risk factors. Midstream intervention measures include improvement of the physical environment such as housing, transportation, land use, or residential segregation since they may have a role to play in people’s decision to use illicit substances. Lastly, but not the least, downstream interventions include provision of treatment for drug users to reduce the risk of disease, injury, and/or mortality (Knickman & Kovner, 2015).




Davis, R.M. (2000). Healthy People 2010: Objectives for the United States. BMJ, 320(7238), 818-819.

Fox, T.P., Oliver, G., & Ellis, S.M. (2013). The destructive capacity of drug abuse: An overview exploring the harmful potential of drug abuse both to the individual and to society. ISRN Addiction, 2013, Article ID 450348, 1-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/450348

Knickman, J. R., & Kovner, A. R. (Eds.). (2015). Health care delivery in the United States (11th ed.). New York, NY: Springer Publishing.

Lander, L., Howsare, & Byrne, M. (2013). The impact of substance use disorders on families and children: From theory to practice. Soc Work Public Health, 28(0), 194-205. DOI: 10.1080/19371918.2013.759005.


















Appendix A:

Communication Plan for an Inpatient Unit to Evaluate the Impact of Transformational Leadership Style Compared to Other Leader Styles such as Bureaucratic and Laissez-Faire Leadership in Nurse Engagement, Retention, and Team Member Satisfaction Over the Course of One Year

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