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  1.  Product and `Brand management

     

    QUESTION

    Write an essay about product and Brand management

 

Subject Essay Writing Pages 7 Style APA

Answer

Section A

Question one

            Research objectives are a concise description of the aims of the research. The research for Gear4music will have the following objectives; first, to establish whether as customer is likely to refer Gear4music to a friend or family member. The objective is important as it will provide feedback on consumer attitude towards Gear4music as a brand in the market.  As Deepak and Jeyakumar (2019) assert, consumer attitude refers to the feelings consumer have a brand in the market. Therefore, the objective will leverage the experience the customers have had with the brand from   quality of products offered to the quality of customer service they received to determine if they rust and love the brand to refer their friends and relatives to it, a move that will signify they prefer its services and products to those offered by their competitors. 

            The second objective is to establish whether the customers will continue to purchase musical instruments after the current Covid-19 pandemic. The objective is important as it will assist Gear4music as a brand to establish whether their increase in sales stemmed only from customers having a lot of time and therefore the freedom to engage in their hobbies such as playing musical instruments or it is a permanent phenomenon informed by a new trend in the market.  The feedback will assist the brand to forecast is level of sales past the pandemic and therefore produce the right volume of products to meet the projected demand in the market. From the feedback, the brand will know if to increase supply if the increase in demand stemmed from an ongoing trend in the market or reduce supply if the increase in demand stemmed from consumers having a lot of time as a result of being indoors during the pandemic, a trend that can change if the consumes resume their daily normal life routine.

Question 1B

Research design

To conduct the research, a qualitative research design will be used.  According to Pheng and Hou (2019), qualitative research design is a research method that leverages open ended questions and a conversational approach to obtain data. The method therefore obtains complete information on what a consumer thinks and why they think the way they think.  Qualitative research design will be used because of the following reasons; first, it will provide an avenue for the business to understand the attitudes of its consumers. Consumers pattern of consumption change frequently in the market. For instance, Gear4music witnessed a significant increase in sales during a period they were expecting their sales like those of other businesses to decrease because of the pandemic. Therefore, using qualitative research design, the research will be able to understand the attitude of the consumers and any possible impending change in their consumption pattern. 

Secondly, it will save the organization money but offer it adequate information that can be used to make strategic and management level decisions.  Qualitative research design is costs effective because it leverages the use of a small sample size.  As Pheng and Hou (2019) asserts, qualitative research design has the ability to use a small sample size but generate actionable information because of the massive volume of information that can be collected from the small sample size.  The research design does not only collect information on the opinion of the respondents on a subject matter, it goes ahead and asks why the responded holds the opinion they have concerning the matter in question. For instance, it will ask the respondents if they are likely to purchase musical instruments after the pandemic and go added to ask why they will or will not make a purchase after the pandemic. Therefore, the use of a small sample size will make the research cost effective thus saving the company money.

Qualitative research design will also increase the accuracy if data collected from the respondents in the marketing research.  Researchers often focus on getting facts from their respondents.  Rigid research design such as quantitative research therefore intimidate the respondent making them offer answers that please the researcher based on the design   used.  Qualitative research overcome such barriers by offering respondents open ended questions, a move that allows them to freely express themselves without the limitation of the data gathering method being used. Such freedom therefore significantly increases the accuracy of the feedback received from the respondents and that of the overall research as conclusions are often based on the analysis of the data gathered from the respondents.

Sampling

After selecting the design for the research, the next segment is to look at the sampling method the   market research.  The respondents who will take part in the research will be obtained through simple random sampling. Simple random sampling refers to sampling procedure where from the entire population, a sample of a desired number is drawn randomly thus giving all the members of the population an equal chance at being part of the sample.  Gear4music is an online store has a lot of data gathered form transactions conducted by their customers over the years.  Using simple random sampling, the entire customers list will be uploaded to the random sampler which will automatically generate a list of the desire sample size to be used in the study. In this case, a sample of 1000 customers will be used.  Simple random sampling will be used because of the following reasons; first, it will give all the customers an equal chance of being selected to be part of the sample and therefore making the results of the research generalizable simple random sampling selects a sample that perfectly represents the entire population therefore making its easy and logical to generalize the results obtained from the sample to the entire population. Secondly, the randomness in the selection of the sample reduces the researchers’ bias researchers bias negatively affects the quality of feedback obtained from research since it leads to collection of wrong data due to wrong sampling.   Simple random sampling   introduces a high degree of randomness in the sample that effectively eliminates researchers’ bias during the research.

Data collection

            The data will be collected through the use of an open ended questionnaire. The questionnaire will be used to collect data for the research because of the following reasons; first, they are easy to use.  The company operates online and therefore receives orders from customers from all over the country. Therefore, physically getting the customers will be hectic as it will involve a lot of traveling across the country, therefore, the open ended questionaries’ are effective since they can be mailed to the respondents who will mail them back for analysis. Secondly, using questionnaires to collect data is a cheap method of data collection. The researcher will not have to incur any travel costs in order to collect data from the generated sample of 1000 respondents. Leveraging the use of efficient and cost effective email technology, the questionaries’ will be sent out and received back from the respondents cheaply thus  reducing the cost of conducting the research.  Also, questionnaires increases the chances of getting accurate answers are they are often filled in anonymously and therefore reduces the pressure the respondent has to please the researcher by offer false information. The fact that they are filled in at the convenience of the respondent and away from the researcher increases their chances of accuracy.

Section B

Question Three

 The current Covid-19 pandemic has significantly affected the business environment. Due to the measures adopted to control the spread of the virus, air transport was stopped, a move that negatively affected the airline industry.  It is therefore imperative for the airline industries to conduct extensive market research to establish measures of resuming operation s post Covid-19.  One of the data collection measures that can be leveraged by the British Airways to conduct the market research is focus groups. A focus group is a group of people from the organization’s target market who can be asked questions about the services offered by the company and their feedback used to better align the services to meet the needs of the customers. In designing the focus group, British Airways should follow the procedure below:

  1. Choose the topic of the discussion

A focus group is a good method for collecting qualitative data. The respondents are available and therefore able to   offer response on various questions asked about the topic they are discussing. However, the effectivity of the focus group can be reduced if the topic of discussion is not clear. A focus groups only meets for a short time during a session. Therefore it is imperative that the session is productive by selecting a topic that narrows the focus of the discussion held by the focus   group. A topic ensures that members of the focus group know what they are going to discuss and also ensures that the selection of members is done by taking those who can actively take part in   discussing the topic. The topic should therefore be the measures British Airways should adopt post COVID-19 to effectively serve their customers.

  1. Choosing discussion prompts

After choosing the topic, the British Airways should go ahead to choose discussion prompts based on the topic selected.  The topic narrowed the focus of the discussion and also offered some direction on the type of participants that will be selected. After selecting the topic, the company should go ahead and use the topic to formulate discussion prompts.  The prompts will help to further narrow the discussion making it more focused and therefore increase its effectively. From the topic selected, the following discussion prompts should be developed: first, should British Airways require vaccination as a prerequisite for travel. Secondly, should the company mandate the use of facial masks during the flight?

  1. Prepare the focus group questionnaire

 The questionnaire will contains developed from the two discussion prompts developed from the selected focus group topic. The questionnaire is vital as it will assist in the actual collection of the data from the participants of the focus group. The questions in the questionnaire should be open ended to enable the participants to extensively offer their opinion on the questions and elicit reactions from other members of the group.  Open ended questions spurs discussions that end up improving the quality of the data collected from the focus group.

  1. Appointing a facilitator and Note taker

 The next step is to collect a note taker and a facilitator for the focus group. The facilitator will ensure that the discussion from the participants as they respond to the questions from the open ended questionnaire is moderated and that all the members have the same chance to air their opinions concerning the questions.  The notes taker on the other hand will listen to the contributions made by the members and takes notes as the notes are the data that will be analyzed and offer feedback for British Airways on what their customers need post COVID-19.

  1. Recruitment of participants

The next step is the recruitment of the participants of the focus group. The participants are the ones who will offer the feedback on the questions being asked. The participants are selected based on several factors such as their ability to address the topic at hand. For instance, based on the topic of study, the company cannot select children even if their parent consent since they cannot provide actionable information on the topic. The company should work with a 15   participants divided into three different focus groups. Each focus group should have 5 members plus the moderator and the note taker making them 7 members.

  1. Consent and discussion

            When the focus groups first meets, they are first reminded of the purpose of the focus group and the offered consent forms. The consent form are to get their explicit acceptance to be part of the focus group. Only those who offer their consent are allowed to participate. After receiving the consent, the facilitator starts the discussion by through introductions and then asking the questions from the questionnaire as the participants respond, the moderator ensures all ensures participate while the note taker writes the contributions from the members during the discussion.

            The data gathered from the three focus group discussion session is compiled and then analyzed. The data is then used to inform the decisions from the company on how they will resume operations post COVID- 19. For instance, if the focus group was unanimous on the fact that the airline should mandate the use of masks in their flights to make them feel safe, they should make that a policy as the focus group is representative of their entire customer base and therefore the findings can be generalized to be the opinion of the majority in their target market.

Question Five

Sampling Techniques

 The company can use both probabilistic and non-probabilistic sampling techniques for the survey.  Probabilistic sampling techniques ensures that members of the population from which the sample is being drawn has a chance of being selected. The probabilistic sampling techniques are:

Simple random sampling

 The company can use simple random sampling. It is a sampling method where the sample frame is the entire population and all the members of the population have an equal chance at being selected.  The sampling method is based entirely on chance, a factor that gives all the members a chance at being selected to form part of the sample. Simple random sampling makes the sample obtained to have a strong statistical inference to the sample frame. In the case of the telecommunications company, its customer list will form the sample frame and random number generator used to establish a sample from the list.

Systematic sampling

The second probabilistic sampling technique available to the company is systematic sampling. It is a sampling   method where the sample is chose n from the population at a regular intervals.   For instance, the company using its customer list, arranges al the names in an alphabetical order. After sorting the list, a decision is made on how the sample is going to be selected. For instance taking the every 10th customer after the first selection. Using this method, the first, customer is selected through the use of random sampling and the next selected based on the rule put in place. For instance, if the rule is to get every 10th customer after the first selection, the sample will be selected as follows, if the first random section is 5 the next will be 15th customer and the third one will be the 25th customer. The method will be replicated until the desired sample size is obtained.

Stratified sampling

Stratified sampling is a sampling methods that the company can also leverage to ensure that the resultant sample is inclusive of all the demographic of employees in the organization.  The probabilistic sampling method works in the following way; first, the population is divided into subgroups called strata based on features such as age or gender. After the subdivision, calculations is done on the sample size and then based on the population of each subgroup, the number that should be sampled from the group is calculated to ensure that the resultant sample has adequate representation from all the strata that was developed.   For instance, if the company has 600 employees with 400 males and 200 females. They are first divided based on gender. The second step is to calculate the require number of males and females that are needed from each group to make a total sample size of 100.  60 males and 40 females are the selected from their various clusters using either random sampling or systematic sampling. The sampling method ensures that both genders have the chance to have reasonable presence in the sample thus making the sample inclusive and representative of the entire population.

Non probabilities sampling

 The company can use non probabilistic methods. These methods of sampling do not give all the members of the population equal chance of being selected and the selection of sample is not based on any clear criteria.  The first non-probabilistic sampling method that can be used by the company is convenience sampling. It is a sampling method where the researcher gets a sample from respondents who can easily be reached. That is, respondents who are in close proximity to the customer. For instance, the company can get a sample from their customers staying next to their business headquarter. The sampling method is cheap and easy to use but unreliable as it leads to a lot of bias.

Between the probabilistic and the non-probabilistic methods, the company should consider using one of the probabilistic methods to get the sample since the methods ensure the sample used in the study is representative of the entire population and therefore results obtained are easily generalizable. On the other hand, non-probabilistic methods are easy to use, however, their weakness is that they result in a sample that does not representative of the entire population and can also introduce researcher’s boas into the sample.

 

Question 5 B

 The sampling technique that is most appropriate for the survey is systematic sampling.  The company make the decision to give every fifth customer who uses their service after the first randomly selected customer the survey that contains question about their experience as customers.  Systematic sampling should be used because of the following reasons; first, it carries a low risk of introducing the researchers bias into the sample used for the survey. The researcher has not control over the sample selected as long as all the rules are followed. Secondly, it is an easy and cost effective method to execute and therefore will ensure that the company get a quality sample that is representative of the entire population at a cost effective rate. Thirdly, it gives the researcher a sense of control over the process as they are able to monitor the selection of the sample. Unlike other methods such as random sampling, the researcher has control and can see as the sampling method is taking place  and judge the quality of the sample thy are getting.  Therefore systematic sampling is the best method that the company should leverage to conduct the survey

References

Deepak, R. K. A., & Jeyakumar, S. (2019). Marketing management. Educreation Publishing.

Pheng, L. S., & Hou, L. S. (2019). Research Design and Methodology. In Construction Quality and the Economy (pp. 89-111). Springer, Singapore.

 

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