Qualitative Research Methods
Qualitative Research Methods;
After you have completed your reading, find a research article that uses a qualitative methodology on refugees in Tasmania. This could be from your previous literature search, or else you can use one of the examples above. Briefly describe on the qualitative methodology used, and if you think this was appropriate for the research question.
After watching the videos on the California drought and the situation in Australia, consider what is currently happening in these areas by using the links for current data provided.
Select one of the following topics and briefly summarise how it may be affecting the state of California and a state of Australia and the potential impact(s) on human health:
• Water scarcity
• Food security
• Vector-borne disease
• Economic impacts
Note in Australia the 2020–21 La Niña is likely to have peaked with respect to atmospheric and oceanic patterns in the tropical Pacific, however, impacts associated with La Niña, such as above-average rainfall in eastern and northern Australia, are expected to persist into early autumn.
Qualitative Research Methods
Part A: Qualitative Research Methods
The purpose of Smith et al. (2019) was to study resettlement experienced among former refugees who are living in Launceston, Tasmania in Australia. The study focused on mental health as well as support services, with a special interest in access barriers (Smith et al., 2019). Smith and colleagues (2019) utilized a phenomenological research design with the use of a combination of semi-structured interviews, six qualitative interviews, seven individual interviews, and face-to-face focus group interviews. Participants included former refugees from Bhutan, Afghanistan, Sierra Leone, Burma, Iran, and Sudan and essential service providers in Launceston, Tasmania. Data obtained from various interviews were analyzed thematically using NVivo10 software. Participants reported improvement of their mental-health wellbeing after resettlement. However, major stressors persisted including limited housing and employment access, and the struggle to master the English language.
Past experiences also continued to impact them including the feelings of responsibility and guilt with families that were left behind. Notable barriers to access to services included discrimination, language difficulty, lack of interpreters, lack of trauma-informed practices, and lack of culturally sensitive services. Besides, service provision disregarded religious and cultural differences (Smith et al., 2019). The utilized qualitative methodology was appropriate for the research question since the study involved collecting perspectives, experiences, and opinions of resettled refugees and service providers in Launceston. The authors were interested in collecting subjective data that could have not been collected using quantitative research methods.
Part B: Water Scarcity
Water scarcity is not having access to safe water supplies and a lack of sufficient water. Water is a pressing need in various parts of the world. In California, ranchers in the Owens Valley of Eastern California have a political conflict with Los Angeles over water rights. Expansion of Los Angeles has outgrown its water supply, leaving ranchers in the Owens Valley high and dry since most of the water in the Valley is being channeled to Los Angeles. The diversion of Owen River to Los Angeles has caused water scarcity in Owen’s Valley, resulting in impairment of its economy (CBS On Demand, 2017). The excessive consumption of groundwater in California’s Central Valley is attributed to the cause of the sinking of the valley by 60 centimeters per year. Geologists believe that depleted groundwater levels in Central Valley can be replenished by flooding farm fields (Stokstad, 2020).
Similarly, Australia is facing water shortages and is on the brink of a water crisis. Water scarcity in Australia is associated with climate change. Australia is getting drier and hotter. There is a growing awareness among Australians for the need to increase their level of proactiveness in securing their freshwater sources. Central Australia is covered by a desert and semi-arid bush where it may not rain for years and temperatures can reach up to 50° Celsius. Australia is considered the driest inhabited continent (and it is becoming drier), receiving average annual rainfall of about 470mm per year. Farming practices are considered the leading consumers of water in the country. For instance, farming alone uses about 70% of the entire water footprint in Australia. The river flows in Australia are expected to drop by 10 to 25% within ten years (Heggie, 2021).
CBS On Demand. (2017). California’s water wars. https://www.sbs.com.au/ondemand/video/1015011907907/dateline-s2017-ep26-californias-water-wars
Heggie, J. (2021). Failing rains and thirsty cities: Australia’s growing water problem. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/article/partner-content-australia-water-problem
Smith, L. A., Reynish, T., Hoang, H., Mond, J., Hannah, C., McLeod, K., Auckland, S., & Slewa-Younan, S. (2019). The mental health of former refugees in regional Australia: A qualitative study. Australian Journal of Rural Health, 27(5), 459-462. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/ajr.12583
Stokstad, E. (2 020). Droughts exposed California’s thirst for groundwater. Now, the state hopes to refill its aquifers. https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2020/04/droughts-exposed-california-s-thirst-groundwater-now-state-hopes-refill-its-aquifers#:~:text=Now%2C%20the%20state%20hopes%20to%20refill%20its%20aquifers,-By%20Erik%20Stokstad&text=California’s%20Central%20Valley%E2%80%94one%20of,as%2060%20centimeters%20per%20year.