Quantitative and qualitative processes
Clarify your understanding of a key concept (development) including an appreciation of the most appropriate form of development and the capacity to distinguish between the quantitative and qualitative aspects of the process.
‘Development’ is a contested term. While economists focus on the drivers of economic growth, those with an interest in human wellbeing often adopt a more holistic approach. They typically focus on community empowerment and improvements in human wellbeing more generally.
Task: Craft an appropriate definition of development and justify the perspective you adopt. Discuss who would benefit from understanding this definition and explain why.
After the Covid-19 was considered a worldwide crisis, many governments resorted to different measures with a mission to mitigate its spread and effect. These government instructions required individuals to reduce face-to-face meetings, only meet (when necessary) in small groups, and at the same time maintain social distancing. One of the social sectors greatly impacted by this crisis is the education system. Many governments considered closing down schools right from the elementary level to the higher education institutions. Researchers have considered this option as detrimental considering that it not only affects students, teachers, and families but also the general community and it’s economy.
Owing to the new restrictions from governments, distinct initiatives have been introduced by higher education institutions in conjunction with their respective governments (especially in developing nations) the prop teaching and learning activities. Currently, teachers have resorted to new teaching methodologies through the use of digital equipment. Nevertheless, the researchers have established that these new methods have expensed teachers and students in unfamiliar territories that lack necessary teaching tools for all students. The problem with this new system is that it has developed critical economic as well as social issues. For instance homelessness, access to healthcare, childcare, food insecurity digital inequity and privacy, student dent, and the weakness of internet connection.
Consequently, researchers have suggested that nations must consider new methods such as online learning to curb the challenges faced by educational systems in third-world countries. The Palestinian educational systems have effectively assimilated this approach during the crisis but the major concern is whether its Ministry of Education is capable to support the new program by providing necessary equipment to all students irrespective of their socioeconomic backgrounds.
In line with the background as well as motivations uttered above, the researchers mainly focused on how teachers responded to the closure of schools burring teaching and communications with students during the crisis in Afghanistan, Libya, and Palestine. The three research questions that helped researchers to collect the necessary data were:
How did Corona Virus impact the educational system in these developing countries?
What type of new technologies have teachers utilized in response to the Covid-19 crisis?
How did the state emerge propelled by the Covid-19 pandemic lead to an alteration in the education system as well as the cause of a sustained upsurge in the mainstream adoption of e-learning?
International organizations like UNESCO have suggested that school closure could as well impact instruction time, which could affect students’ achievement and their educational performance. School closure could also lead to negative economic developments that will respectively affect families with poor income.
Teaching during the crisis has been challenging considering that schools have been closed and face-to-face interactions have been prohibited. Even with the crisis, teachers are encouraged to develop new strategies that will help students develop their communication, competencies, and skills. To effectively prepare students to respond wisely, skillfully, and morally, teachers have used e-learning tools to prepare them cognitively, practically, and emotionally. However, teachers have experienced difficulties in incorporating online learning due to digital inequality among learners, poor as well as unsustainable instructional materials and content, poor teaching quality, and absence of training and support from the government.
The best approach for analyzing the significance and the best approaches in line with the closure of schools due to the health pandemic was an exploratory research design. The research method is an essential approach to examine an issue that is not vividly defined through posing questions to establish baseline data that can be utilized to support future studies. The researchers opted for a qualitative approach to collect data. Another qualitative method considered by the researchers was a semi-structured interview with the subjects.
The sample size that the researchers opted for was 22 teachers, both male and female from Afghanistan, Libya, and Palestine. The context of the research was teachers proficient in different subjects in the middle school setting. In terms of collecting data, the scholars opted for semi-structured online interviews with the participants. Also, the participants were taken through focus group sessions. Both approaches were audio-recorded after confirming permission from participants.
When analyzing the obtained data, the researchers opted for thematic analysis. This is a qualitative analytic process for analyzing, categorizing, and reporting themes (patterns) within data. The files that were recorded from the focus group sessions and semi-structured interviews were transcribed. Firstly, the scholars examined the semi-structured interview information individually through reading the provided scripts and analyzing it in line with the ideas linked to the research questions. Later, the researchers developed themes that correlated with the data.
The examination of the evidence collected in the apparent sturdy illuminated how teachers in Afghanistan, Palestine, and Libya responded to schools being closed during the Covid-19 pandemic. It was established that the crisis has the same effect on student’s learning processes across the globe. The closure of schools has deprived children of their right to education but e-learning is one of the proposed solutions. However, achieving this strategy has been challenging especially in developing nations. Firstly, many schools, especially from poor regions lack the necessary tools such as computer gadgets and the internet to facilitate online learning. Also, teachers from these regions lack the necessary skills to hand in the new teaching method. Respectively, researchers have suggested that some teachers have established new methods to combat the existing challenges. However, the gap between students from well-off families and that of poor families will always exist in the latter will remain to be disadvantaged.
In light of this analogy, the scholars have proposed that both the local and national governments, NGOs, teachers, and students have to look to methods that will guarantee the continuation of learning during the Covid-19 outbreak.